A Vault is a type of a subterranean installation designed by Vault-Tec. Officially, they were designed for the sole purpose of sheltering up to one thousand dwellers from a nuclear holocaust. But, they were actually used as an experiment for the government. It has impenetrable walls protecting it from the disasters of the post-apocalyptic world.
Commissioned by the United States government as part of Project Safehouse, Vault-Tec built 122 such Vaults over the country. However, when the storm of nuclear war came in 2077, the Vaults were sealed without many of their dwellers due to the Cry Wolf effect training drills had on the populace.
The first Vault was built in Los Angeles, intended to demonstrate the viability of such a facility. The demonstration Vault was built beneath the city, within its limits and unlike other Vaults, wasn't part of the experiment. Most Vaults were completed by 2063, except for Vault 13, which was the last one to be completed.
Officially, the Vaults were nuclear shelters designed to protect the American population from nuclear holocaust. However, with a population of almost 400 million by 2077, the U.S. would need nearly 400,000 Vaults the size of Vault 13, while Vault-Tec was commissioned to build only 122 such Vaults. The real reason for the existence of these Vaults was to study pre-selected segments of the population to see how they react to the stresses of isolation and how successfully they re-colonize Earth after the Vault opens.
The shadow government, the Enclave, responsible for the experiment (officially known as the "Societal Preservation Program"), have considered themselves prime candidates for recolonizing the world after a nuclear holocaust and to this end commissioned the construction of their own shelters, isolated from the Vault network. The purpose of the Vault experiments was to help prepare the Enclave for either re-colonizing Earth or colonizing another planet if Earth turned out to be uninhabitable by unmutated humans.
The total number of vaults is a government secret and has been lost; there were the aforementioned "public" vaults, which numbered 122 and an undisclosed number of "private" vaults. Information on whether Vault-Tec was an international corporation and were there vaults made by them in other parts of the world, or were they strictly U.S. based, cannot be released due to Vault-Tec and US Government regulations
Of the 122 Vaults, only 17 were control, meaning that only 17 were made to public expectations, all others were designed to include a social experiment, sometimes with a select few of the inhabitants observing the occupants.
The few Vaults that survived intact for more than 80 years came to serve another, unanticipated purpose: they were an excellent source of pure human stock, uncontaminated by the mutated airborne strain of FEV and prime candidates for conversion into Super Mutants.
|LA Vault||The Vault-Tec demonstration Vault. It was not part of the experiment, and was the Master's Vault under the Cathedral in Fallout.||Southern California, near Los Angeles (Cathedral)||Fallout|
|Vault 6||Unknown||Mount St. Helens, Washington||Fallout Extreme'|
|Vault 8||A control Vault, intended to open and re-colonize the surface after 10 years. Vault City is the result.||Northern California
|Vault 12||In order to study the effects of radiation on the selected population, the Vault Door was designed not to close. This is the Necropolis Vault... and the ghouls were the result.||Bakersfield
|Vault 13||Intended to stay closed for 200 years as a study of prolonged isolation, the broken water chip forced the Overseer to improvise and use the Vault Dweller as a pawn. Later study of the Vault 13 records by the Enclave led them to their current plan to end the war.||Northern California||Fallout
|Vault 15||Intended to stay closed for 50 years and include people of radically diverse ideologies. Gathered from what you hear from Aradesh in Fallout 1, he has quite a bit of multicultural flavouring to his speech. The birthplace of three Raider groups and Shady Sands.||Northern California||Fallout
|Vault 27||This Vault would be overcrowded deliberately. 2000 people would be assigned to enter, double the total sustainable amount.||Unknown||Fallout Bible only|
|Vault 29||No one in this Vault was over the age of 15 when they entered. Parents were redirected to other Vaults on purpose. Harold is believed to have come from this Vault.||Colorado||Fallout Bible (first mention)
|Vault 34||The armory was overstocked with weapons and ammo and not provided with a lock.||Unknown||Fallout Bible only|
|Vault 36||The food extruders were designed to produce only a thin, watery gruel.||Unknown||Fallout Bible only|
|Vault 39||Original purpose unknown.||Abilene, Texas||Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel 2|
|Vault 42||No light bulbs of more than 40 watts were provided.||Unknown||Fallout Bible only|
|Vault 43||Populated by twenty men, ten women, and one panther.||Unknown||Penny Arcade|
|Vault 53||Most of the equipment was designed to break down every few months. While repairable, the breakdowns were intended to stress the inhabitants unduly.||Unknown||Fallout Bible and Possibly in Vault-tec east coast computers|
|Vault 55||All entertainment tapes were removed.||Unknown||Fallout Bible only|
|Vault 56||All entertainment tapes were removed except those of one particularly bad comic actor. Sociologists predicted failure before Vault 55.||Unknown||Fallout Bible only|
|Vault 68||Of the one thousand people who entered, there was only one woman.||Unknown||Fallout Bible
and possibly in conversation with President Richardson.
|Vault 69||Of the one thousand people who entered, there was only one man.||Unknown||Fallout Bible (first mention)
Van Buren concept art
and possibly in conversation with President Richardson.
|Vault 70||All jumpsuit extruders fail after 6 months. Most of the inhabitants were Mormons.||Salt Lake City, Utah||Fallout Bible 0
|Vault 74||A very small vault consisting only of the Overseer's office, atrium, clinic, and quarters (blocked).||Capital Wasteland||Fallout 3 modding tutorial|
|Vault 76||This Vault was designed as a control group for the vault experiment like Vault 8, intended to open and re-colonize the surface after 20 years.||Unknown
|Vault 77||Stated in comic to be populated by one man and a crate full of puppets, in Fallout 3 a Jumpsuit is acquirable at Paradise Falls.||Unknown||Penny Arcade|
|Vault 87||A Forced Evolutionary Virus research facility||Capital Wasteland||Fallout 3|
|Vault 92||Populated largely by renowned musicians, this vault was a test bed for a white noise-based system for implanting combat-oriented posthypnotic suggestions.||Capital Wasteland||Fallout 3|
|Vault 101||Evaluation of performance of an omnipotent Overseer in an indefinitely closed community||Capital Wasteland||Fallout 3|
|Vault 106||Psychoactive drugs were released into the air filtration system 10 days after the Door was sealed.||Capital Wasteland||Fallout Bible (first mention)
|Vault 108||The vault houses a cloning lab and all (surviving) residents are clones of one man called Gary.||Capital Wasteland||Fallout 3|
|Vault 112||Home of Tranquility Lane virtual reality simulator.||Capital Wasteland||Fallout 3|
|Unfinished Vault||A fenced construction place in a small cave north from Vaults 13 and 15.||Northern California||Fallout 2|
|Vault 0||A special Vault designed to "monitor and control" other Vaults.||Mount Cheyenne (Colorado)||Fallout Tactics|
|Secret Vault||A secret Vault dedicated to protect high-members of Vault-Tec and used to research the latest technologies and the Forced Evolutionary Virus.||Los||Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel|
|Vault Prototype||A small Vault-Tec facility used as the base of operations by the Texas Brotherhood of Steel||Texas||Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel|
The Vaults were one of the most expensive shelters in the pre-War world, as according to the Vault Dweller's Survival Guide for Vault 13 (otherwise known as the Fallout manual), the intended budget for that particular installation was 400 billion dollars, and by the end of its construction reached 645 billion. The Vaults were located in various locations, and little information is available as to why those particular sites were chosen. For example, Vaults 13 and 15 were located in rather remote locations, far from population centers, while Vaults 12 and 101 lay near or in cities themselves.
Each Vault was designed to hold one thousand occupants at any given time, although hot bunking was required at maximum capacity, and equipped with all facilities and supplies needed by them to survive in isolation for the designated time. The facilities and supplies included complete construction equipment, hydro-agricultural farms, a water purification system, defensive weaponry to equip 10 men, communication systems and surface monitors, social and entertainment files (for total duration) as well as one or two G.E.C.K.s, intended to help the inhabitants repopulate the post-nuclear world after the All Clear signal is sent following the conclusion of the social experiment.
Different types of power sources were utilized for the Vaults. Vault 13 relied primarily on geothermal energy, with backup power available from a General Atomics Nuclear Power generator, and could sustain one thousand inhabitants for two hundred years. Vault 8 on the other hand, relied on an unspecified type of reactor, which, while enough for Vault City to emerge, could only support a relatively small, highly advanced settlement, and in 2241 was nearing its capacity, after which further growth would be impossible.
All Vault Dwellers wore blue-and-yellow jumpsuits, although the design varied between different Vaults. An average Vault Dweller living in a properly maintained Vault could expect to live at least 92.3 years.
It should be noted that due to scaling, the size of Vaults in games shouldn't be taken at face value - none of the Vaults which can be entered in the series have enough space or facilities to actually house 1000 people (or rather 500, as hot bunking system is in effect at maximum capacity).
Realistically speaking, many of the Vaults are flawed. The powerful shockwaves caused by nuclear weapons would likely cause the entrance shaft (which has no internal support) to collapse entirely. This would block the blast door, causing the inhabitants to be entombed by the above building(s) and or rocks. This may have happened to Vault 87, which suffered a direct nuclear blast outside its door that still produced high levels of radiation 200 years after the fact. These shockwaves are mostly caused by ground-burst detonations, however, and Vault-Tec may have assumed that they only had to plan for air-bursts (usually favored for maximum dispersal and minimum blockage of the blast by terrain). It is also possible that the designers believed that the Vaults would not be primary targets in a war, and so only constructed them to protect against radiation and distant nuclear explosions. Also, some of the Vaults, such as Vault 112, have a reinforced steel entrance shaft and would probably be able to withstand even a nearby surface detonation. However, the entrance to the building above Vault 112 was nearly buried by rubble.
The entrance houses the Vault's only connection to the outside world - the airlock. (With the exception of Vault 87)
Closed from the inside by a reinforced high-security door and from the outside by a massive, gear-shaped four yard thick vault door (which Three Dog claimed "weighs, like, thirteen tons"), it's the only means of entering or leaving the Vault, although secondary entrances or exits may have existed in some Vaults.Vault 87 had two additional entrances reachable through Lamplight Caverns. Security codes are required to both leave and enter the Vault, and they are usually only known to a handful of people within the facility. East Coast Vaults did not seem to require codes, but instead they had a console located on both sides of the entrance, which opened the Vault door via a lever.
The automated narrator of the the Vault-Tec vault demonstration in Washington DC's Museum of Technology states that the doors had a projected 2% failure rate in case of a direct hit by a nuclear missile. So far, the only known vault to have been hit directly (or very nearly) by a nuclear weapon is Vault 87. According to the terminal of Vault 87's overseer, the blast caused the vault's main door to completely and utterly fail, apparently damaging it "beyond repair." Though this could be considered unfortunate and ironic happenstance, it is more likely an indicator that Vault-Tec's failure rates were completely fabricated.
Most Vaults use a Seal-N-Safe Vault Door Model No. 343 to secure the airlock, however, some older Vaults (such as Vault 101) use a different, more crude blast door model. Vault 8, the control Vault, had also a second, much larger, blast door built, that secured the entry hallway leading to the entrance to the Vault.
In addition, the Entrance level also houses the Emergency Medical Lab complete with an AutoDoc. A Vault medic was required to be present at the EML 24 hours a day. The lab had the equipment to treat nearly all injuries and illnesses, ranging from simple bruises to irradiation.
Standard pre-War design of the living quarters was that of a single room with a sanitary annex. Vault 13 had one hundred living quarters, and at maximum capacity, ten people would be assigned to a single living quarter, in a hot bunking system. A standard level had 20,000 square feet of usable area.
The lights used in the Vaults used SimuSun technology, making it feel just like the outdoors, with only a fraction of a sunburn risk. The lights in Vault 101 were kept on all the time to prevent a Radroach infestation.
New Entertainertrons were used to play holotapes, and used as a slide projector in the classroom of Vault 101.
Heart of the Vault, the command center was where the Overseer's seat was located. The operations center, apart from the seat of power, included the computer lab, where the water purification system was located, and an armory, where the Vault's arms were stockpiled. A security guard was posted in the command center at all times, to ensure that the armaments are properly secured, and handed out only to people possessing the proper clearance from the Overseer.
Apart from that, the level also contained the computer core (with the Vault's AI monitoring the shelter 24/7), housing data processing units, a library playing an important role in educating Vault Dwellers and information, a meeting room for the dwellers and the primary store room, where the most important supplies would be stored.
The Overseer is also able to see anyone inside the Vault with the Eye-on-you cameras.
Equipped with dual 5mm miniguns in some Vaults, the Overseer's command post can be considered the last line of defense in case the Vault security is breached.
In Secret Vault, There are several command post for the various location. It mainly contains buttons to regulate locking doors and other things, as the activation of laser protection.
In terms of providing safety and security for their inhabitants, most of the Vaults were complete failures. However, as noted in the Penny Arcade Comic, the Vaults were never really intended to save anyone. There was simply not enough time, money or resources to build enough shelters to house more than a fraction of the population. While the "control vaults" did function as advertised and open on schedule, most were actually intended to explore and observe how societies adapt (or, more often, fail to adapt) to various challenges and restrictions. These social experiments were performed on live and mostly unaware subjects, monitored by Vault-Tec researchers in separate facilities, and undertaken at the behest of what would become the Enclave as part of a massive feasibility study of how to best re-colonize a barren Earth or, if necessary, other planets.
Most of the Vaults seen in the games were non-viable 200 or even a mere 80 years after the War. While Vault 13 might have lasted until its scheduled opening date of 2277, the unplanned failure of the Water Chip forced the Overseer's hand and set subsequent events in motion. If Vault 101 was truly intended to stay closed "forever", its failure was inevitable; the only question was how long, and what form the change or disaster would take. Many other Vaults were abandoned because of unlivable conditions, or saw the residents driven violently insane by the procedures inflicted on them. Some of these continue to pose a hazard to the unwary who wander in from outside, looking for loot or a place of safety.
Despite all of this, the experiment may be considered a success in terms of the data collected... data that was much more important to the Vault-Tec and Enclave scientists than a few hundred thousand lives, most of whom would have died anyway if not for the Vaults.
The vault experiment was an idea created by Tim Cain during the initial stages of Fallout 2 development.
The developers intended for the player to first encounter information about the Vault Experiment as they read the Vault 8 records in Fallout 2. They could discover a classified file (opened with a successful Science skill roll) explaining the purpose of Vault 8 was to be a "control Vault," designed to hold 1000 people and open at a designated time. This file was intended to foreshadow the discovery of the true and sinister purpose of the Vaults.
The player was also intended to apply his Science skill to the central computer in Vault 13 to obtain a history of Vault 13, the Overseer's involvement in the Vault Dweller's expulsion, and even worse, the true purposes of the Vaults. The Overseer was conscious of the true purpose of the Vaults as social experiments on a grand scale, and consequently drove out the Vault Dweller because of fear he would ruin the experiment... or uncover it.
In the Vault-Tec Headquarters, a gear-shaped Vault door can be seen hanging from the ceiling to the right of the lobby. It is a copy of the Vault 101 door, right down the number on the centre.
There is another vault exhibit in Washington DC inside the Museum of Technology. The number on the door is 106. This one however, though containing the same materials for walls and lighting is only one corridor with vault doors at either side always kept open for the museum visitors to take the tour. Just like Vaults 87, 92, 106, and 108 the metal walls have rusted over time. It's safe to say this "vault" did not work as halfway through the corridor, a charcoaled skeleton of a janitor can be seen on the floor showing that they were killed by the bombs.
Most of the above comes from: