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eWrestling

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From the eWrestling Encyclopedia.

A Referee (or Official) is, in e-wrestling as professional wrestling, an authorized supervisor who officiates wrestling matches to maintain fairness and legitimacy while working under kayfabe. As officials have the ultimate power in the ring, it has becomed likened that higher authority figures hold the authority to overturn the official decision of a referee and usually spark what is known in professional wrestling as a "Dusty finish".

In e-wrestling, officials with the exceptions of handlers are used for the sake of e-wrestling in shows and have no characterization besides being known to fulfill their job description as in any sport with a referee. As this may be, however, Universal Wrestling Federation handlers exceptionally write referees such as Corky Spectre. Referees are usually retired pro wrestlers or pro wrestlers which have a preference of the role over wrestling.

Contents

Reason/Full Role

Aware that professional wrestling is in fact a worked, staged, fixed, scripted, plotted, entertainment sport, an official is incorporated to conduct or render decisions (by management scripting of pinfalls, submissions, draws, or pass-outs) during competition and serves a key role of communicating with competitors over their physical or mental conditions to continue, remind them of script plans, stop a match in case of injury and inform the amount of remaining time before the conclusion of the match (plus the beginning and end of commercial breaks on live broadcasts) as well as help them gauge the crowd reaction through certain alignment tactics by wrestlers. In wrestling today, referee's wear a wireless earpiece in which instructions are transmitted by backstage workers in the event of a situation. The selection of referees by management hinge on height and weight habitually less than six feet and 180 pounds with a weakish-looking non-athletic stature to divert attention to the larger wrestlers and for they appear wimpy and weak when they are assaulted usually by an inadvertent incident, their unconsciousness will interest the event while anything goes that results as of the referee's undetection. Examples of this are done with non-fictional promotion, World Wrestling Entertainment which others tend to also follow like e-wrestling for one.

The "X" signal

While professional wrestling is a set, realistic injuries can occur. Therefore, in the event, the referee will raise his arms in an "X" to signify to the emergency crew backstage to come to the aide of the situation. This precautionary measure is synonymous with WWE and utilized for (Storyline) injuries and legitimate ones.

Backstage officials and emergency crew communicate over the earpieces and decide on the revising the script plan and perhaps shortening the match unless wrestlers have the ability to proceed. Moreover, if the situation falls in the severe category with the wrestler down, the emergency crew's appearance and aide will instantly signify the end of a match unless subsequently once again, a wrestler is rebellious and wants to continue. There is also a "blow off" sign that sees the referee raise their hand straight up if the wrestler appeared injured but can continue on.

Referee incidents

Referee incidents are part of what keep the sport of wrestling interesting and make emphasis the power and fortitude of the wrestlers. For heels, they are an advantageous predicament such as a missed clothesline attempt that puts a referee in "state of unconsciousness" (though the move is particularly not as powerful as its suppose to appear to seem) for a scripted designated interval to carry out usually a dusty finish that permits them to use sleazy tactics or use a foreign object to blatantly cheat in a rule-oriented match, as they sometimes under kayfabe, either take out the referee purposely or accidentally. Face wrestlers will also stumble upon this predicament by accident unless angered or frustrated and will assault the referee differently on purpose (which some faces get away with without turning heel) where they will push or shove the referee away (something heels do too).

Ruled under the referee section of professional wrestling, any events not personally eye-witnessed by the official, a decision against it cannot be made. As an example, provided or provided not a heel manager manipulates a referee's attention away from in-ring action to allow heel wrestlers villainous offense in what is an ubiquitous "distract the referee" tactic, if a wrestler was accused of allegedly using the rules for leverage to pin and it went undetected by referee before the end of the match, the referee cannot reverse the match. However, on some occassions this rule can be broken to spite the heel when it's decided to review footage of the incident (that usually hypes a face in return).

Hybrid referees

Special referees

Special referees are temporarily made officials paticularly assigned for storylines when a wrestler, valet, manager, a staff member or any authority figures become the official of a match to usually call the match down to the middle or "screw over" under kayfabe, a competitor they have a dispute with. The position is morely known to be used back in the 80s and early 90s for special celebrities.

Special outside referees

Special outside referees or Special enforcers or Special guest enforcers are similar to Special referees and are usually biase wrestler-made officials that are partners with a wrestler and look out only for their associate. The position is also taken by an authority figure or a guest (as the particular people may vary). They basically stay outside and alert actions not detected by the eye of the in-ring referee. The Special outside referees can become an inside referee provided that the in-ring referee in "knocked unconscious" or becomes kayfabe incapacitated during the match. Otherwise, they generally have no decision-making power but is authorized to physically force wrestlers to cooperate with the rules and physically stop or remove interference from the ring or outside it.

Personal referees

Personal referees work as an effective gimmick for heel wrestlers to further get themselves over or because they are losing matches and are situated on the permanent payroll of the heel. The referee can be a lackey or loyal ally with a senior position. This is a further extension of the "corrupt referee" gimmick which sees referee allegiance flaunted and publicly made conspicuous that which alienates the crowd - there referee themself is exempt from punishment due to their position.

Referee attire

Referee attire varies in promotions. The most common attire is the black and white striped shirts usually with a company logo patch on the left breast. Black pants are also worn.

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This article uses material from the "Referee" article on the eWrestling wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Ice Hockey

Up to date as of February 02, 2010
(Redirected to Official article)

An Ice Hockey Wiki article.

American Hockey League referee Dean Morton

In ice hockey, an official is a person who has some responsibility in enforcing the rules and maintaining the order of the game. There are two categories of officials, on-ice officials, who are the referees and linesmen that enforce the rules during game play, and off-ice officials, who have an administrative role rather than an enforcement role.

Contents

On-ice officials

A linesman about to drop the puck during a faceoff.

As the name implies, on-ice officials do their job in the hockey rink. They are traditionally clad in a black hockey helmet, black trousers, a black-and-white striped shirt,and black polished skates with pure white laces. They wear standard hockey skates and carry a finger whistle, which they use to stop play. They communicate with players, coaches, off-ice officials, both verbally and via hand signals. For many years (and currently in most minor and amateur leagues), officials had their last names on the back of their jerseys for identification, normally in a single row across the shoulders. (Some officials with long names would have their name in two rows, the most notable example being Andy Van Hellemond.) Starting in 1996, however, NHL officials wear numbers on their shirts, a procedure adopted by other leagues.

Referees

A referee is responsible for the general supervision of the game. He can be identified by his red or orange armbands. His judgment of goals is final. Under most officiating systems, he is the only official with the authority to assess penalties for violations of the rules. However, the linesman can also call a variety of penalties, such as "too many players", and major penalties if the referee was unable to identify the penalty.

Linesmen

Linesmen are primarily responsible for watching for violations involving the red line and the blue line. Such infractions include icing and offsides infractions. Linesmen also conduct faceoffs. They are also expected to break-up scuffles, and/or fistfights and other altercations that occur during the game. Some leagues allow linesmen to call penalties (such as too many players on the ice), while others only allow them to report the infraction to the referee.

Assistant referees

In some leagues, such as the NCAA, the linesmen are given the title of assistant referee. When given this title, they are given more responsibility to stop play and call penalties that the referee may not see.

On-ice officiating systems

  • The three-official system uses one referee and two linesmen. This is the most common officiating system. The NHL previously used this system until changing to the four-official system.
  • The four-official system adds a second referee for a total of two referees and two linesmen. This system is used in the NHL and other high-levels such as major Junior hockey. In 2007-2008, college hockey is using the system in some games on a trial basis[1].
  • In the two-official system, each official acts as both referee and linesman—each has the responsibility to call both penalties and blue and red line violations. In this system, neither official wears red or orange armbands. This is used at lower levels of youth hockey and in most adult recreational leagues.
  • In the 2-1 system, there are two referees and one linesman. There are a variety of ways to divide the responsibilities between the referees and linesmen. Typically, the back referee is responsible to make the initial call at the blue line when the puck first enters the zone, and after that the linesman takes over.
  • The 1-1 system (sometimes called Texas two-man) uses one referee and one linesman. Often, this is an informal system used when one of the officials does not show up for a game scheduled to use the three-official system, or an official is hurt during a game. The referee in this system must also make the occasional line call.
  • The one-man system used in non-competitive leagues. The referee makes all calls, though with less accuracy than in other systems.

Off-ice officials

Off-ice officials, with the exception of the video goal judge in professional leagues, do not have any direct impact on the outcome of the game. They serve primarily administrative and advisory roles.

Goal judge

The goal judge determines whether a player has scored a goal by watching to see if the puck has crossed the goal line completely. One goal judge is positioned outside the rink directly behind each goal net. For arenas so equipped, the goal judge turns on a red light behind the goal to alert everyone that a goal has just been scored. The red light (and the green light which is mounted next to it) are hooked up to the game clock: when the clock is stopped or the green light is turned on when the game clock reads :00, the red light cannot be turned on. The goal judge acts only in an advisory role; the referee has the sole authority to award goals and can override the opinion of the goal judge.

In 2006, the NHL began experimenting with goal judges in higher seats (especially upper decks) with wireless signals. The idea was to allow teams to sell the lower seats, but also to give officials a better view of the action as to be able to reject goals if violations (illegally kicked in, player in the crease, offside) took place.

Video goal judge

The video goal judge reviews replays of disputed goals. As the referee does not have access to television monitors, the video goal judge's decision in disputed goals is taken as final. In the NHL, goals may only be reviewed in the following situations: puck crossing the goal line completely and before time expired, puck in the net prior to goal frame being dislodged, puck being directed into the net by hand or foot, puck deflected into the net off an official, and puck deflected into the goal by the high stick by an attacking player.

Official scorer

The official scorer keeps the official record of the game. He is responsible for obtaining a list of eligible players from both teams prior to the start of the game. He awards points for goals and assists, and his decision in this regard is final. The official scorer typically sits in an elevated position away from the edge of the rink.

Penalty timekeeper

The penalty timekeeper records the penalties imposed by the referee. He is responsible for ensuring that the correct penalty times are posted on the score clock.

Game timekeeper

The game timekeeper is responsible for stopping and starting the game clock.

Statistician

The statistician records all required data concerning individual and team performances.

List of current NHL on-ice officials

Referees

  • Stéphane Auger #15
  • David Banfield #44
  • Chris Ciamaga #41
  • Paul Devorski #10
  • Gord Dwyer #39
  • Kerry Fraser #2
  • Eric Furlatt #27
  • Mike Hasenfratz #30
  • Dave Jackson #8
  • Marc Joannette #25
  • Greg Kimmerly #18
  • Don Koharski #12
  • Tom Kowal #32
  • Steve Kozari #40
  • Dennis LaRue #14
  • Frederick L'Ecuyer #48
  • Chris Lee #28
  • Mike Leggo #3
  • Dan Marouelli #6
  • Rob Martell #26
  • Wes McCauley #4
  • Bill McCreary #7
  • Mick McGeough #19
  • Brad Meier #34
  • Dean Morton #36
  • Dan O'Halloran #13
  • Dan O'Rourke #42
  • Tim Peel #20
  • Brian Pochmara #43
  • Kevin Pollock #33
  • Kyle Rehman #37
  • Chris Rooney #5
  • François St. Laurent #38
  • Justin St. Pierre #45
  • Rob Shick #16
  • Kelly Sutherland #11
  • Don Van Massenhoven #21
  • Ian Walsh #29
  • Dean Warren #35
  • Brad Watson #23

Linesmen

  • Derek Amell #75
  • Steve Barton #59
  • David Brisebois #96
  • Lonnie Cameron #74
  • Pierre Champoux #67
  • Scott Cherrey #50
  • Michel Cormier #76
  • Mike Cvik #88
  • Pat Dapuzzo #60
  • Greg Devorski #54
  • Scott Driscoll #68
  • Ryan Galloway #82
  • Darren Gibbs #66
  • Don Henderson #91
  • Shane Heyer #55
  • Brad Kovachik #71
  • Brad Lazarowich #86
  • Brian Mach #78
  • Andy McElman #90
  • Steve Miller #89
  • Jean Morin #97
  • Brian Murphy #93
  • Jonny Murray #95
  • Derek Nansen #70
  • Thor Nelson #80
  • Tim Nowak #77
  • Mark Paré #79
  • Pierre Racicot #65
  • Vaughan Rody #73
  • Dan Schachte #47
  • Lyle Seitz #61
  • Anthony Sericolo #84
  • Jay Sharrers #57
  • Mark Shewchyk #92
  • Mark Wheler #56

Recently deceased NHL officials

  • Stephane Provost, NHL Linesman (1967-2005)

Notable retired NHL officials

  • Ron Asselstine
  • Bob Best
  • Wayne Bonney
  • Ryan Bozak
  • Gord Broseker
  • Bill Chadwick
  • Kevin Collins
  • John D'Amico
  • Ron Finn
  • Ron Fournier
  • Gerard Gauthier
  • Terry Gregson
  • Bob Hodges
  • Ron Hoggarth
  • Bruce Hood
  • Swede Knox
  • Randy Mitton
  • Denis Morel
  • Ray Scapinello
  • Cooper Smeaton
  • Paul Stewart
  • Leon Stickle
  • Red Storey
  • Andy Van Hellemond
  • Stephen Walkom
  • Ron Wicks

See also

Director of Officiating (NHL)

External links

  • HockeyOfficials.com
  • HockeyRefs.com
  • National Association of Sports Officials
  • NHL Officials Association
  • Hockey Canada Officiating Program
  • USA Hockey Officiating Program
  • National Ice Hockey Officials Association
  • Off-Ice Officials at Michigan State University
  • Wasatch Ice Hockey Officials Association
  • Atlantic Amateur Hockey Association Officiating Program
  • Eastern Collegiate Officials Association
  • Mid-Atlantic Hockey Officials Association
  • Metro New York / New Jersey Chapter of the National Ice Hockey Officials Association
  • Northeast Ice Hockey Officials Association

References

  1. College men's hockey: Early reviews favor ref experiment Duluth News Tribune (October 25, 2007)
Positions on the Hockey Rink
Forwards:
Left winger | Centre | Right winger
Defencemen:
Left defenceman | Right defenceman
Goaltender:
Goaltender
Power forward | Enforcer | Captain | Head coach | Referee & linesman

This article uses material from the "Official" article on the Ice Hockey wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Runescape

Up to date as of February 07, 2010
(Redirected to Gnome ball referee article)

From the RuneScape Wiki, the wiki for all things RuneScape

Gnome ball referee
The Gnome ball referee.
Release date Unknown edit
Race Gnome
Members NPC? Yes
Quest NPC? No
Location Tree Gnome Stronghold
Sells items? No
Skill requirement? No
Quest requirement? No
Gender male
Examine Keeps the game fair.
Notable features Gnome referee

The Gnome Referee runs the members-only Gnomeball minigame. You may have to talk to the Gnome Ball referee for a level 2 clue scroll.


This article uses material from the "Gnome ball referee" article on the Runescape wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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