The Miltoans evolved along similar lines to some Native American tribes on the planet Earth. A peaceful people, they remained a neutral power within the Alpha Quadrant and often offered their services as mediators between various conflicting parties.
The Miltoans did not believe in forcing their beliefs on others, and their planet was open to anyone with peaceful intentions. While no formal agreement existed, Starfleet guarded Miltoa Prime against threats as the Miltoans themselves had no military.
Their society was built upon a great amount of trust and honesty.
The Miltoans believed their role in the universe was to promote harmony in the face of adversity and diversity.
By 2268, the Miltoans involved themselves in the Federation-Klingon dispute at the Federation's request. In this same year, the Klingons attacked E'ria, a habitable moon of Miltoa Prime, killing 8 million civilians. The USS Cantabrian, under the command of Captain Thekla Lawless, was one of the first ships to arrive to render assistance.
Despite their losses on E'ria, the Miltoans pressed on with peace talks between the two powers. In 2293, the Khitomer Accords were signed, with Miltoan representation on hand at the Khitomer Conference as a neutral power to ensure the Accords were fair.
In the 2360s, the Miltoans invited Federation, Klingon, Cardassian and other scientists to Miltoa Prime to assist with rediscovering their past. Anne Cobry was an archaeologist representing the Federation on Miltoa Prime during part of this time. (Star Trek: The Prospect Chronicles: "Directive")
The Federation considered involving the Miltoans in peace talks with the Myhr'an after their attacks on Federation and other races' space in 2372; however, the Myhr'an ignored all peaceful approaches. (Star Trek: The Cantabrian Expeditions)