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Coruscant
Astrographical
Region

Core Worlds[1]

Sector

Coruscant sector

System

Coruscant system[1]

Suns

1: Coruscant Prime[1]

Orbital position

6

Moons
Grid coordinates

L-9

XYZ coordinates

0,0,0[3]

Distance from Core

10,000 light years

Rotation period

24 standard hours[1]

Orbital period

368 local days[1]

Physical
Class

Terrestrial[1]

Diameter

12,240 km[1]

Atmosphere

Breathable[1]

Climate

Temperate and controlled[4]

Gravity

Standard[1] (near 9.81 m/s2)

Primary terrain
Surface water

Below 5% (29% in the ice caps)

Points of interest
Societal
Native species
Immigrated species

Various other species, Zuna[1]

Primary language(s)
Government

Dictatorship (formerly); later : Galactic Republic)[1]

Population
  • Official census: 1 trillion permanent ground residents
  • 78% Humans
  • 22% Other[3]
  • Additional amount of transients, temporary workers, unregistered populace, residents of orbital facilities[6]
Demonym

Coruscanti[7]

Major cities

Galactic City (Republic City, Coruscant City, Capital City, Imperial City, New Republic City) (capital)

Major imports
  • Foodstuffs[1]
  • Medicinal goods[1]
Major exports

Culture

Affiliation
"Coruscant… the entire planet is one big city."
Ric Olié

The Galactic Center of Coruscant (pronounced /'kʊɹəsɑnt/), originally called Notron, also known as Imperial Center or the Queen of the Core, was the political hub of the galaxy for millennia. It was generally agreed that Coruscant was, during most of Galactic history, the most politically important world in the galaxy. At various times, it was the capital of the Galactic Republic, the Galactic Empire, the New Republic, briefly the Empire Reborn, the New Republic again, the Yuuzhan Vong Empire occupation, the Galactic Alliance, the Fel Empire and Darth Krayt's Galactic Empire. These governments, that all controlled Coruscant, controlled the galaxy in the process.

A large number of the galaxy's trade routes—including the Perlemian Trade Route, the Corellian Run, the Metellos Trade Route, the Koros Trunk Line, and the Leisure Corridor—went through Coruscant, making it one of the richest worlds in the galaxy. Tellingly, the planet's hyperspace coordinates were (0,0,0), and the military designation was Triple Zero. Accordingly, it was the main planet of the all-important 'Sector Zero', a military designation for the Coruscant and surrounding systems.

The actual planet-wide metropolis of Coruscant was divided into smaller 'cities', (though each was the size of the average country by most standards). Among these was the administrative center, known as Galactic City, Republic City, Coruscant City or the City of Spires under the Galactic Republic, Imperial City during the rule of the Galactic Empire, and New Republic City under the New Republic, and later Yuuzhan'tar when the planet was under Yuuzhan Vong control.

Contents

Description

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Surface

"Seen from orbit, Imperial Center is a blaze of light and sparkling colors, reminding some spacers of corusca stones, after which this planet was named long ago."
Pollux Hax

Geologically, the planet was composed of a molten core with a rocky mantle and a silicate rock crust. At its poles were huge ice caps that were popular spots for tourists.

Night view of the Senate District from 500 Republica, c. 19 BBY.

The entire surface of Coruscant was covered by sprawling kilometers-high skyscrapers and cities, and boasted a population of over a hundred billion to several trillion, depending on the era. Following the end of the Clone Wars, an official census noted 1 trillion official permanent residents. The statistics did not include transients, temporary workers, unregistered populace nor residents of orbital facilities. Because of these omissions, the "real" population of Coruscant was estimated to be three times the official amount.[6]

Coruscanti skyscrapers dwarfed all the original natural features, including mountains, as well as floors of oceans which once covered a large proportion of Coruscant's surface. Areas of Galactic City were broken up into levels, megablocks, blocks, and subblocks[8]. Coruscant itself was divided into quadrants, which were divided into zones[9]. Below the skyscrapers was Coruscant's undercity, where sunlight never reached. Artificial lighting illuminated these lower levels and advertisement holograms could be seen everywhere. There were numerous establishments for entertainment, catering to a myriad of alien species. The residents were collectively referred to as Twilighters.

Water

"All inland seas and oceans have been drained and consumed over the thousands of years of overpopulation, leaving no other water than what is locked inside the ice."
Pollux Hax
Pipes bring water from Coruscant's polar regions.

Coruscant was once a world mostly covered in oceans.[10] However, all natural bodies of water were drained and stored in vast caverns beneath the city as a result of years of overpopulation. The only body of water visible was the artificial Western Sea, with many artificially-created islands floating on it, used by tourists on holidays.

With no other bodies of water available to feed and water its trillion inhabitants, Coruscant's architects, along with many others from around the galaxy, worked together to build a self-contained eco-system in the massive buildings set all over the planet. Polar cap stations also melted ice and distributed water throughout the planetwide city through a complex series of pipes.

Manarai Mountains

One of the few pieces of Coruscant's landmass that were left untouched were the Manarai Mountains, twin peaks that stuck up out of the ground near the famous Imperial Palace. The Manarai Mountains included the tallest peak, Umate; many floating restaurants; Monument Plaza; and were home to the Flames of Umate cult. It was beneath the Manarai Mountains that the Lusankya was hidden. The mountains were destroyed during the Yuuzhan Vong assault on Coruscant.

Neighborhoods

The multi-layered surface of Coruscant.

Galactic City was divided into quadrants, "several thousand" in number, with each quadrant further split into sectors[9]. Each sector was numbered on official maps, but sectors often had nicknames, such as Sah'c Town (sector H-46, named for a prominent family that owned a large portion of its land) and The Works, the largest of Coruscant's designated industrial zones. (Coruscant practiced zoning, which is the designation of specific areas of land for particular purposes, such as governmental and senatorial, financial (including banking zones), residential, commercial, industrial, and manufacturing. Manufacturing and industrial zones were typically the largest designated areas of the planet.) The Works was once one of the galaxy's major manufacturing areas, where spacecraft parts, droids, and building materials were heavily produced during centuries, but as construction and industry became more efficient and cheaper away from Coruscant, The Works fell into disrepair[9]. It gained a reputation as a hub of criminal activity and many locals stayed away from it. A similar, but more dangerous area, was the Factory District, which was once the industrial heart of Coruscant until it too lost out to competition from producers in other Core Worlds. By the time of the Great Jedi Purge it lay in ruins and was almost completely deserted of sentients, because of the feral droids that prowled its streets. It was located on the opposite side of the planet, and was much more dangerous than the Southern Underground, Invisible Sector, which were infamous in their own right.[6] Another area of Coruscant was CoCo Town (short for "collective commerce"). Many diverse species lived there and worked in manufacturing. A partially enclosed open-air plaza near the Senate building, the Column Commons, was so-called because it housed most of the HoloNet and news media corporations.

Sports

Chin-Bret was one of the most popular sports on Coruscant during the last years of the Galactic Republic. The sport was played by chin-bretiers who carried pikers to play the game. The sport was most famously played at the T'Chuk Arena.

Livability

"The attitude of most inhabitants is that Coruscant exists for the business of government, not for vacations and sunbathing and sightseeing…"
Pollux Hax
The Works landscape.

Coruscant also orbited relatively far from its small star Coruscant Prime, ranging from 207 million to 251 million km. Thus, Coruscant did not naturally have a climate suitable for Humans. Coruscant's Humans countered this by erecting a series of orbital mirrors that reflected the sun's warmth and light. Several of these mirrors would be destroyed in the Battle of Coruscant during the Clone Wars, although it is unknown whether this had any lasting effect. It is known that thunderstorms and rain occurred during 19 BBY[11] and 3 ABY,[12] possibly as an effect of the altered sunlight from the remaining mirrors.

Panoramic view of the planetary cityscape of Coruscant from the High Council Chamber.

The planet produced trillions of tons of waste an hour. Though almost everything on the planet, from clothes to packaging and machinery, was recyclable, some waste was too dangerous to recycle such as worn-out hyperdrive cores were delivered to one of five-thousand garbage pits on Coruscant, there they were put into canisters and chemically shot into a tight orbit around Coruscant where garbage ships would collect them and transport them to nearby moons for storage. Some of the most dangerous materials were shot into the nearby sun and completely incinerated. Garbage not exported or destroyed was mixed into a slurry of silicone oils and processed by garbage worms who chewed it into pellets removing any remaining organics, plastic, or recoverable metals. They turned millions of tons of pellets into carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases. Another problem for a world like Coruscant was the unimaginable amount of carbon dioxide and heat energy that its trillion-being population generated each day, so thousands of carbon dioxide-reactive atmospheric dampeners were put into place in the upper atmosphere to prevent atmospheric degeneration. The first set of these planet-wide dampeners, developed by the Galactic Republic, was known as the Coruscant Atmospheric Reclamation Project.

Near the planet's core were a number of massive power relay stations. The lowest levels were abandoned to mutants and scavengers, such as the cannibalistic, mythical Cthons. The foundations of many of the buildings, some of which weighed billions of tons, also extended deep into the planet's crust.

Galactic Standard Time was developed on Coruscant and revolved around the hours in a single Coruscant day, 24, with 368 local days a year.

Public Safety

The Public Safety Department was in charge of preventing situations that might endanger the public's safety. Fire fighting, rescue and cleanup was performed by the Coruscant Rescue Ops which dealt mainly with the tens of thousands of ships that were in the capital. Each planetary district maintained their own teams. Law enforcement was provided mostly by the Coruscant Police Force. They were assisted, at various times, by the Jedi Order, Judicial Forces, the Republic Security Force, clone troopers of the GAR, the Coruscant Guard, the Stormtrooper Corps, the Coruscant Planetary Defense Force, the New Jedi Order, the Galactic Alliance Guard, and Galactic Alliance Security. Police droids were also used. The CoCo District maintained its own constabulary force.

Defenses

As of the Battle of Coruscant during the Yuuzhan Vong invasion, Coruscant had a four tier defense system. The first and "uppermost" tier was a series of mines. These were deactivated during the Battle of Coruscant at the behest of Lando Calrissian because he believed that they would do more harm than good, only to be reactivated by Calrissian later when the attacking Vong fleet was in the midst of it, thus trapping many more foes.

The second tier was a series of Golan Defense Platforms, mostly Golan II types. The command platform was dubbed "Orbital Defense One" and was larger than its cousins. Most of these were destroyed when the Vong broke through New Republic lines, including Orbital Defense One.

The third tier was a massive planetary shield, controlled by a series of relays on the surface of Coruscant. The shield seems to have worked by some kind of dispersion of energy released onto the shield. The Vong employed a tactic which involved waves of kamikaze ships crashing into the shield, overloading the relays, and effectively bringing it down.

The fourth and last tier was an array of rooftop turbolasers, akin to the point-defense systems on some capital ships. Some were operated automatically, others by Human gunners and astromech droids. Also counted was the proton bomb in the Chief of State's office, which was detonated when Vong soldiers occupied the Imperial Palace. The explosion destroyed the building housing the office, and the data towers on Coruscant.

It is unknown as to whether the Galactic Alliance incorporated these same defenses during the rebuilding of Coruscant.

History

Pre-Republic

"The recorded history of Coruscant stretches back so far that it becomes indistinguishable from legend…"
Pollux Hax

The very early history of Coruscant is a bit sketchy and is not well known. Coruscant was considered by many to be the Human homeworld. Millennia ago, the Celestials could have removed Humans from Coruscant with which to populate Corellia.

Coruscant at the time of the Great Galactic War

Around 200,000 BBY, the near-Human Taungs attempted to conquer the 13 baseline Human nations of the Battalions of Zhell. A volcano decimated the Zhell, the ash filling the skies for two years, so the Taungs adopted the name Dha Werda Verda (Warriors of Shadow) for themselves. The Human Zhell eventually recovered and drove the Taungs offworld.

One hundred millennia later, Coruscant was surveyed by the Columi, who dismissed the planet as a primitive disappointment, despite the already planet-spanning ecumenopolis of Galactic City. New buildings were built on the old. As a result, there was virtually no exposed land. In the forgotten underlevels of the city, there was darkness, pollution and crime. Higher up, there were government offices and penthouses owned by the elite. The lower fifty levels of the ecumenopolis is said to have last seen sunlight around 95,000 BBY.

Coruscant was one of many worlds conquered by the Infinite Empire of the Rakata, who used Human slaves to build the Star Forge in 30,000 BBY. Under Rakatan domination, the Humans of Coruscant's colonization attempts were limited to sleeper ships, which ended up on Alderaan, in the Tion Cluster, Seoul 5, Kuat, Alsakan, Axum, Anaxes, Atrisia, Metellos, Corulag, and many other worlds. The Rakata were eventually decimated by a massive plague, leading to slave revolutions on Coruscant and other subjugated worlds.

Over the next two centuries, Coruscant was linked to other Core Worlds, including Corellia, Alderaan, New Plympto and Duro, by hyperspace cannons, via the Herglic Trade Empire. It was during this time that the Coruscant government peacefully absorbed the nearby Azure Imperium. During these pre-Republic years, the languages of Coruscant and its neighbors meshed to become Old Galactic Standard.

Early Republic

"That's the seat of Galactic government!'"
Exar Kun

In 25,053 BBY, the Corellians and Duros invented the hyperdrive proper, allowing Coruscant to become the capital of a democratic union: the Galactic Republic. 53 years later the planet became the galactic centre, and remained the Republic's capital for twenty five thousand years. Shortly after the formation of the Republic, the Perlemian Trade Route was mapped, linking Coruscant to Ossus and bringing the Jedi Knights into the Republic. Over the next millennium, the Corellian Run was mapped, linking Coruscant to Corellia and beyond. Blasters were also invented on Coruscant around this time, and the famous Galactic Museum was constructed in 12,000 BBY.

From the very beginning, Coruscant, as the Republic's capital, was the primary objective in several wars. The earliest among these was the Tionese War with the Honorable Union of Desevro and Tion in 24,000 BBY, in which Coruscant was bombarded with Tionese pressure bombs. Other early battles included the Alsakan Conflicts, the Duinuogwuin Contention, the Great Hyperspace War, the Third Great Schism, the Great Droid Revolution, and the Great Sith War.

Following the devastation of Ossus, the Jedi Council took up residence in the Jedi Temple on Coruscant, to which many Jedi relics from Ossus were taken. The Temple was greatly expanded, including the building of the original Jedi Council Chamber. The Temple was repeatedly expanded including in 3,519 BBY, 2,519 BBY (when the Jedi Archives were built), 2,019 BBY, and 1,000 BBY (when the Temple spires were finally fully rebuilt).

At some point, the Senate Rotunda was founded, replacing the previous assembly place. The exterior of this massive structure would survive the planet's transformation into the new Yuuzhan'tar.

End of the Republic

"The planet thrives on the changing tide of politics, providing a stable anchor through damaging rebellions, the long-overdue fall of the corrupt Old Republic, and the sweeping introduction of the Emperor's resplendent New Order."
―Pollux Hax
The skyscrapers of Coruscant in 32 BBY.

As Darth Sidious gained in power (and transformed Anakin Skywalker into Darth Vader in the process), and other major politicians and entities became more aggressive, political instability surged both throughout the galaxy and on Coruscant, threatening the capital itself and inflicting heavy violence on and near the planet.

In 33 BBY, terrorist organization The Flail, accusing the Galactic Senate of corruption, disrupted public services of Coruscant, including commerce, communications, traffic and weather, destroying property and lives while doing so. They were stopped by agents of Finis Valorum.[13]

In 27 BBY, Coruscant was almost destroyed by Ashaar Khorda using the Infant of Shaa. Jango Fett, Zam Wesell, and Yarael Poof saved Coruscant, although Poof sacrificed himself to do so. News of this averted disaster was never widely divulged, however. Had it been done, there is no doubt that the capital's huge population would have been thrown into panic and fear.

By 23 BBY, as the end of the Separatist Crisis approached, the Confederacy of Independent Systems had become a significant threat to the stability of the Republic. Many systems seceded from Republic control, among them Ando and Sy Myrth, resulting in a mass exodus of Aqualish and Sy Myrthians from Coruscant.

The Jedi Temple on Coruscant at sunset.

Around this time, several assassination attempts were made on Naboo senator Padmé Amidala while she was on Coruscant, including the bombing of her personal ship, destroying it and killing several of her handmaidens and guards. Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi were assigned to protect her. Eventually, they managed to foil another attempt at Padmé's penthouse by Zam Wesell, leading to an airspeeder chase through Coruscant which ended in a showdown at the Outlander Club, a sports bar and club found in an entertainment district in the lower levels. The Jedi caught Zam, but she was killed by a mysterious armored figure, leading Obi-Wan to Kamino.

During most of the Clone Wars, Coruscant was subject to frequent Separatist terrorist acts and assassinations of leading Republic figures. These included the holding of Senator Meena Tills hostage by Korunnai terrorists in 22 BBY (actually cover for an attempt to turn the Corporate Sector against the Republic). 21 BBY saw a wave of such disasters, including the Coruscant Insurrection[14] and the assassinations of former Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum[15] and Senator Viento[16].

Such incidents prompted the Republic to implement numerous changes on Coruscant in the name of increased security. Huge stretches of the cityscape were transformed into military staging areas, and clone troopers of the Republic's Grand Army began to be seen patrolling most of the planet. The fanatical pro-Human COMPOR was founded, the local SAGroup led by Nenevanth Tion marching in a patriotism parade. COMPOR pressured Tannon Praji into deporting from the capital all members of species whose homeworld had joined the Confederacy. Vice-Admiral Terrinald Screed was placed in charge of Coruscant Planetary Defense.

The mushroom-shaped Galactic Senate building during the Declaration of the New Order.

Despite the numerous precautions taken, in 19 BBY the Confederacy of Independent Systems succeeded in making a surprise raid on Coruscant. Bypassing the heavily fortified Corellian Sector by use of secret hyperspace routes through the Deep Core provided by Darth Sidious, a Separatist fleet under the command of the dreaded General Grievous took the city planet completely unaware. While the Separatist ships engaged the Republic home defense fleet, an army of battle droids descended upon Galactic City. The invasion distracted the defending Jedi and clone forces while General Grievous and a squad of his elite MagnaGuards captured the Supreme Chancellor Palpatine. However, Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi succeeded in rescuing the Supreme Chancellor from the infamous Separatist flagship Invisible Hand. The Battle of Coruscant eventually turned in the Republic's favor and the Separatist's armada was forced into a full retreat.

However, the battle had shaken much of the population, and large portions of the city had been decimated by falling ships or collateral damage caused in the vicious fighting.

At the conclusion of the Clone Wars, Coruscant was renamed Imperial Center following Chancellor Palpatine's Declaration of a New Order as part of the reorganization of the Galactic Republic into the Galactic Empire.

Galactic Empire

"Imperial Center was a world with enough diversions for just about anyone."
Mara Jade Skywalker

While the planet's name was officially changed during Palpatine's rule, most working-class denizens of the Empire continued to call the planet-city by its old name. As part of the Humanocentric policies of the galaxy, non-Human species were also compelled to live in segregated areas (also known as "ethnic neighborhoods") of Imperial City, the largest and best-known of which was known as Invisec. Those that did enter other parts, whether by intention or mistake, were punished brutally.

During the reign of the Empire, a proclamation by Palpatine made Imperial Center the only planet in the galaxy where political science students could do postgraduate work. The reason was twofold: foremost was the hope that the future politicians and technocrats of the galaxy would be more likely to accept the values and rule of the New Order; second was that the brightest of them could be detained, either voluntarily or by force, on Imperial Center to assist in the running of the Empire.

Darth Sidious also began to shape Coruscant with his own designs, and this included the installment of almost one million surveillance systems throughout the ecumenopolis. Massive shield generators were placed all over Coruscant, and where the shield segments overlapped, powerful storms would brew. Although Coruscant had always been known for its high concentration of thunderstorms (due to rising vapor from the billions of buildings and homes), the increased frequency lent the planet a foreboding, almost gothic look, which mirrored the utter desperation of many of its inhabitants as they choked under Palpatine's iron rule. Palpatine also arranged for the Executor-class Star Dreadnought Lusankya to be buried beneath the Manarai Mountains district. Later, the massive battleship was used as a private prison by Director of Imperial Intelligence Ysanne Isard.

Sidious also had the Palace of the Republic rebuilt and renamed the Imperial Palace. The Palace, a massive pyramidal structure which was by far the largest construction on Coruscant, was rumored to also be the largest building in the entire galaxy, with the possible exceptions of the massive Sharu plastic pyramids of the Rafa system

Crowds celebrate the death of Palpatine.

During the Dark trooper project, Coruscant was visited by Kyle Katarn who raided the ISB.

Around the same time as the Battle of Endor, Tyber Zann raided the Imperial Archives in search of a Sith Holocron.

Following the death of Palpatine at Endor in 4 ABY, an uprising took place on Coruscant. Billions of Coruscanti reveled in their newfound freedom, and an armed uprising sprang out from the nonhuman-dominated sectors. Imperial patrols were attacked in the streets, statues of Palpatine were toppled and other Imperial symbols were desecrated.

In the midst of all the celebrating and rioting, alarmed Imperial authorities ordered a massive crackdown on the rebellious elements in the city-planet's population and gave full power to the local military force to end the uprising and restore order to the system. The military retaliation was ruthless and the horrendous death toll rose as the Empire struck down the insurrectionists and brought the populace back under its control.

New Republic troops hoisting the banner of the New Republic over Coruscant.

Following these tumultuous events, the Grand Vizier Sate Pestage assumed control of Imperial Center. Unfortunately, he was opposed by Palpatine's former advisors who formed the Inner Circle. Ysanne Isard operated as a neutral intermediary between the two opposing factions. Unbeknownst to them, she had been secretly pitting them against each other, clearing the path for her rise to become Empress in all but name, though neither side realized her true intentions until it was far too late. She eventually assumed control of Imperial Center in 5 ABY though her reign was plagued by the threat of rival warlords and the expanding New Republic. Thus, she had a team of scientists including Evir Derricote create an artificial virus known as the Krytos virus which only affected non-Human species and then contaminated the city planet's water supply with it.

Later, in 7 ABY, the famous New Republic starfighter squadron Rogue Squadron under their leader Wedge Antilles were sent undercover to infiltrate Coruscant and sabotage the planet's powerful shield generator. To do this, they hijacked a construction droid and used it to transport them to a command center where they used one of the planet's orbital mirrors to evaporate a large amount of reservoir water, thus creating a powerful electrical storm which brought down the shields. This allowed a New Republic fleet under the famed Admiral Ackbar to enter the Coruscant system and capture the galactic capital.[17]

However, within days of the victory, millions of Coruscant's non-Human population started to die due to the Krytos virus. Since only Humans were immune to the virus, this drove a wedge between the New Republic's member species. Worse, Ysanne Isard used the Lusankya to escape Coruscant and flee into hyperspace to the planet Thyferra despite the efforts of Rogue Squadron. In the process, the Lusankya caused devastation to over 100 square miles (259 km²) of the planet's surface, killing millions of inhabitants instantly. It then blasted its way through the two planetary shield levels, pausing to exchange fire with an orbiting Golan III Space Defense NovaGun before jettisoning the lift cradle and departing the Coruscant system. Later, New Republic scientists developed a cure for the Krytos virus by mixing bacta with a rare grade of the spice ryll, known as kor. This prevented further loss of alien life, though interspecies relationships remained volatile for some time.

New Republic

Hapan Battle Dragons in orbit above Coruscant.

Controlling Coruscant was the key to the Galactic Civil War for the New Republic. Imperial City was renamed New Republic City and the former official name Imperial Center was abandoned. After Isard's loss of Coruscant and her retreat to Thyferra, fragmentation within the Empire deepened as the Imperials lost faith in their leaders and the survivors of the Imperial Inner Circle were found once again providing a tenuous central authority for the Empire, thus the Imperial Remnant was born. They supported the Chiss Grand Admiral Thrawn as Supreme Commander—mistakenly believing that as an alien, and with no standing in their rarified political world, he would necessarily remain beholden to their patronage and government.

Hapes Consortium

In 8 ABY, Coruscant was visited by the Hapes Consortium which surrounded the planet with a fleet of Hapan Battle Dragons, marking the first time in millennia that the insular society had made significant contact with the rest of the galaxy since the Consortium sealed its borders around 3,100 BBY. At the Grand Reception Hall, the Hapan delegates presented the New Republic with many magnificent gifts including several captured Imperial Star Destroyers.

However, the final gift would be the most shocking of them all. The Hapan Queen Mother's son and heir Isolder presented himself to Councilor Leia Organa as a marriage suitor. Despite realizing the benefits of an arranged marriage between the two factions, she was still romantically attached to Han Solo. Following an adventure on Dathomir and the defeat of the Imperial warlord Zsinj at the hands of the Hapan fleet, Han Solo and Leia Organa married during a wedding ceremony at the Alderaanian consulate on Coruscant. This was attended by hundreds of friends and officials and view on holovid by billions across the galaxy.

Thrawn Crisis

The defense of Coruscant.

In 9 ABY, during the Thrawn Crisis, Grand Admiral Thrawn's fleet besieged the galactic capital. Since his forces were outnumbered by the New Republic defenses of Coruscant, he used cloaking technology to create an effective siege weapon. To do this, he fitted 22 asteroids with cloaking devices and placed them onboard his Star Destroyers. During the battle, Thrawn placed the asteroids in low orbit, then retreated into hyperspace, creating an invisible hazard field around the galactic capital.

As a result, the New Republic was faced with two major problems: they couldn't drop the energy shield around the planet in case an asteroid hit the heavily populated cityscape nor could they allow space traffic near the planet in case of collision. This left Coruscant effectively blockaded. After Thrawn died at the Battle of Bilbringi, the blockade was lifted and Coruscant was free again.

Reborn Palpatine

Coruscant orbit was littered with debris after the Fourth Battle of Coruscant.

In 10 ABY, the Imperial Inner Circle, encouraged by what Thrawn had accomplished so quickly with so little, agreed to organize an attack on Coruscant and other key New Republic worlds in the Core. This forced Chief of State Mon Mothma to consider a last-minute plan for the defense of the galactic capital. However, she never got a chance since the combined Imperial armada began bombarding Coruscant's energy shield from orbit, causing extensive damage to the heavily populated cityscape below. Mon Mothma then ordered a general evacuation of the entire population of the capital. Thus, the Empire had retaken its Center and the New Republic resorted to guerilla fighting.

However, after Coruscant had been retaken, the Council decided that it was time to elect a new Galactic Emperor. The various admirals, generals, Moffs, Inquisitorius, COMPNOR and Imperial Security Bureau officials disagreed, and an armed conflict (the "Imperial Civil War") soon broke out amongst the various Imperial factions on Coruscant. The city planet was devastated during the conflict with much of the planetwide metropolis devastated by the fighting and the deaths of billions. The space around Coruscant was littered with the wreckage of starships which would not be cleared for years. However, eventually the cloned/reborn Palpatine showed up and claimed that he should be the New Emperor and ended the Imperial Civil War. Later he decided to create a new empire, since the Imperial Remnant had claimed the galactic capital, thus the Empire Reborn had become the dominant force in the galaxy and recovered the old Galactic Empire.

The bombed Senate Hall.

After Palpatine's final death in 11 ABY at the Battle of Onderon, the New Republic retook the planet and used EVS Construction Droids to clear the rubble and create new, gleaming skyscrapers.[18] However, much of Coruscant's population had fled as result of the fighting and the planet's population during the New Republic era may have been lower. Thus, many of New Republic City's midlevel apartments were unoccupied but still serviceable. However, the shadowy lower levels remained unaffected by the reconstruction programmed and would still remain the haunt of various crime syndicates. Many still struggled to survive in the lower forty or fifty levels. However the Empire Reborn had been defeated but not destroyed, after the Imperial's vanquished retreat from the battle of the galactic capital, thus the Imperial Remnant had been reborn.

In 17 ABY, following the Black Fleet Crisis, while Leia Organa Solo was preparing for a speech, the Senate Building was attacked and severely damaged by Brakiss and Dolph, forcing a nearly complete renovation.[19]

Peace

In 19 ABY, following the signing of the Pellaeon-Gavrisom Treaty by Imperial Remnant Grand Admiral Gilad Pellaeon and New Republic Chief of State Ponc Gavrisom on the Chimaera[20], Jedi Master Luke Skywalker and Mara Jade Skywalker married on Coruscant. However, during the wedding ceremony, a group of Imperial partisans attempted to sabotage it including infiltrating the event site and hiring a swoop gang to disrupt the wedding.[21]

The wedding started with a bachelor party in the lower levels before attending a private Jedi ceremony in the renovated Jedi Temple. The public ceremony at Coruscant's Reflection Gardens remained largely peaceful because Booster Terrik and several others kept the swoop gang at bay. Lastly, when the final Imperial partisan attempted to unleash a computer virus, Luke persuaded him to surrender and to join the party.[21]

Second Imperium

Coruscant in the New Republic era

In 22 ABY, the Second Imperium infiltrated the Coruscant system by using the cloaked Shadow Academy to remain in orbit above the planet, invisible to the eyes of the New Republic military presence and Coruscant Planetary Defense Force. A Second Imperium force consisting of the former TIE pilot Qorl's assault shuttle and several modified TIE Fighters also boarded the bulk cruiser Adamant and fled into hyperspace with its valuable cargo of starship hyperdrives.

The Imperium also sent three Nightsisters named Tamith Kai, Garowyn and Vilas to infiltrate the lower levels and recruit more followers for their cause including the street gang Lost Ones and Zekk. Those discovered to be Force-sensitive became Dark Jedi while others became Stormtroopers and TIE pilots. However, Jedi trainees Jaina, Jacen Solo, Tenel Ka and Lowbacca used several solar mirrors to burn out the Shadow Academy's cloaking systems, exposing it to the New Republic fleet. However, the station powered its hyperdrive and escaped into hyperspace. Luckily, the Imperium would later be defeated during a skirmish at Yavin 4.

Yuuzhan'tar

"You can see things have changed."
Admiral Traest Kre'fey
The Millennium Falcon attempts to rescue Borsk Fey'lya during the Fall of Coruscant in 27 ABY.

Coruscant's darkest hour (from a Galactic point of view) was at the peak of the Yuuzhan Vong War. During the Fall of Coruscant, the extragalactic Yuuzhan Vong overwhelmed the Republic defenses in three attack waves and conquered the planet. Coruscant, which had been completely covered in city sprawl for millennia, was devastated during the assault. Billions of lives were also lost during the battle.

Also, many of the landmarks that made Coruscant unique either met their end or were altered to suit the invaders' needs. The Imperial Palace was destroyed when Chief of State Borsk Fey'lya detonated a suicide bomb in his office; the Manarai Mountains, the last part of the planet untouched by cityscape, were blasted into giant craters; the Western Sea, the planet's sole body of water at the time, was turned into a giant Succession Pool; the Senate Building became the location of the World Brain, which was in charge of the terraforming of the planet. It was at this event the Yuuzhan Vong Empire was formed, since they had claimed the galactic capital.

"In my dreams here, I have seen… Coruscant itself shattered by orbital bombardment from ships of impossible design. I have seen Coruscant, the seat of galactic culture, become a jungle far more hostile and alien than any on Haruun Kal. I have seen the end of civilization."
Mace Windu in a vision circa 22 BBY

The Yuuzhan Vong designated it Yuuzhan'tar, after their homeworld, the name of their species, and their chief deity Yun-Yuuzhan, and terraformed it to overwhelm the city covering its surface and restore a natural ecology. In order to get Coruscant to match their homeworld, large dovin basals pulled the planet closer to Coruscant Prime and biological processes were set forth to create the jungle including increasing the temperature and releasing more moisture into the atmosphere. Soon, nearly the entire planetwide city was covered beneath vegetation while rivers filled canyons where airspeeders had once roamed before. The lower levels were the domain of wildlife brought in from the Yuuzhan Vong galaxy and was where most of the outcast Shamed Ones lived.

Coruscant's three smaller moons were dragged from their original orbits by dovin basals while its largest moon was destroyed by tidal stress created by pulses from other yammosk-linked dovin basals. A similar technique dragged the resulting expanse of dust, rock and hardening magma into a wide spreading asteroid belt known as the "Rainbow Bridge", that they were familiar with. The Rainbow Bridge orbited Coruscant around at an angle of 17 degrees from the ecliptic.

Coruscant under Yuuzhan Vong control.

The vast majority of the planet's non-Yuuzhan Vong population was shipped offworld in massive refugee ships, though some people did stay behind in the substructure of the city; they called the "new" Coruscant Necropolis.

When the living planet Zonama Sekot suddenly arrived in the system, it collapsed the Rainbow Bridge, caused another of Coruscant's moons to be "slingshotted" out of orbit, and pulled Coruscant closer to its original orbit, causing volcanic eruptions and groundquakes for the first time in two thousand years. The Galactic Alliance eventually retook Coruscant from the Yuuzhan Vong during the Liberation of Coruscant.

Galactic Alliance

The Galactic Alliance and the Yuuzhan Vong then signed a peace treaty in 29 ABY, thus ending the Yuuzhan Vong War and not long after terminated the Yuuzhan Vong Empire and the Peace Brigade. It was decided that Coruscant would be rebuilt as the capital of the Galactic Alliance, returning to the ecumenopolis-style whenever possible while leaving the Yuuzhan Vong terraforming wherever it was as yet unfeasible to change. The World Brain would still remain in the Senate Building, as there was as yet no way to remove it without causing further damage to the planet.

As the government transferred back to the world from Denon in 30 ABY, additional new buildings were constructed, such as the new Senate building, Executive building, and Defense Force headquarters, thus the Galactic Alliance had officially taken authority of the Galaxy. In 35 ABY, a New Jedi Temple was also constructed. A large park called Unity Green was also constructed to symbolize the treaty between the Yuuzhan Vong and the Galactic Alliance.

Second Galactic Civil War

Around the time of the Second Galactic Civil War in 40 ABY, the Galactic Alliance Guard, a secret police organization, was formed by the Galactic Alliance to spy and monitor on Corellian terrorist activity on Coruscant. The Guard was led by Jacen Solo, a Jedi Knight, a Colonel of the Galactic Alliance military and also an aspiring Sith Lord.

The GAG were responsible for interning and deporting Corellian citizens in Galactic City, and in some cases, executing those taken during the raids. Thus, because of these harsh actions and their dark military uniforms, members of the Guard earned a fast reputation as a uncompromising band of hard-liners among the population. Many of their prey referred to them as "Stormies", thus drawing inevitable comparisons of Jacen Solo to the late Darth Vader and the troops themselves to stormtroopers.

Under Jacen's leadership the soldiers saw a likeness within Jacen with Vader's own command style, noting that he "never asked of them what he would not do himself." Though necessary in some respects, the GAG's actions were mainly a vehicle for Jacen's rise to the position of Sith Lord. This would only deepen the rift between the Galactic Alliance and the Corellian-led secessionist movement.

During this time, the GAG used the World Brain as a method of tracking suspects. The World Brain was eventually killed in a failed assassination attempt on Jacen Solo by Alema Rar.

In the same year, Jacen, now the Sith Lord, Darth Caedus, was attacked by Kyle Katarn and three other Jedi Knights in front of the Senate building. Katarn was deeply wounded and one of the Knights had lost his life by Caedus's hand, but Katarn and the other Jedi had managed to escape. The outcome came as expected for the Jedi. Unbeknownst to the Sith, a Jedi apprentice planted a tracking device on Caedus's cloak so as for the Jedi hidden on Endor would be able to track Caedus's every move. Following Darth Caedus's death in 41 ABY, the Confederation surrendered.

Unification and Anti-Jedi Crises

Two years later the Unification Summit was held on Coruscant to resolve post-war disputes between the three galactic goverments, the Galactic Alliance of Coruscant, the Confederation of Corellia and the Imperial Remnant of Bastion. The Hapes Consortium of Hapes also agreed to unite with the larger Galaxy during the signing of the galactic treaty. However Natasi Daala, Chief of State of the Galactic Alliance, ordered Luke Skywalker and his order to be exiled from the galactic capital, for Darth Caedus's crimes during the war. Luke called the Jedi to the Jedi Praxeum to resolve their banishment, but where persuded even further, exiled from galactic authorities.

New Galactic Empire

Coruscant during the Legacy era.

In 130 ABY, control of Coruscant was wrested from the grip of the Galactic Alliance during the final days of the Sith-Imperial War, and was now in the hands of the resurgent Empire, under the command of Emperor Roan Fel. Coruscant became the Imperial throne-world once more. This however did not last long, as Darth Krayt turned against Emperor Roan Fel and named himself the new Emperor instead.

Coruscant began to appear as bustling and thriving as it once did during the Old Republic with the effects of the Yuuzhan Vong War still a reminder, from the growth on skyscrapers, to the altered night sky. Air traffic in skylanes was still the primary mode of transportation.

Also in this era the Coruscant Underworld had been cleaned of Yuuzhan Vong feral and security was finally brought down to the interior.

Economic rivalries and off-planet political centers

Coruscant wasn't the only galactic hub in the galaxy after hyperdrive became common usage in 25,100 BBY. Since 53 years after the formation of the Republic, the term "Whoever controls Coruscant controls the galaxy" was coined. During the Old Republic era and beyond, there were several urbanized planets and moons that rivaled Coruscant economically, and some that were other major governmental centers.

  • Nal Hutta and Nar Shaddaa: In 15,000 BBY, the Hutts, having abandoned their homeworld of Varl, took control of the planet and its moon, which were located on popular trade routes, particularly the Ootmian Pabol, and Nar Shaddaa became completely urbanized. However, in an unknown amount of time that had passed, the trade routes shifted, and the planet and the moon lost their economic opportunities. Nar Shaddaa eventually became a haven for smugglers and criminals.
  • Empress Teta: In 5,000 BBY, the planet, then known as Koros Major, rose to the forefront of galactic events as the Old Sith Empire attacked it. The Jedi repelled the invaders, and since then it has been considered the capital of the Deep Core (before the rise to prominence of and after the destruction of Byss), even being called the 'Coruscant of the Deep Core'. A bastion of civilization in the impenetrable and treacherous Deep Core, it remained a major center of commerce during the times of the Empire, New Republic and Galactic Alliance. It was also intended as the original redoubt for the New Republic government to flee to during the Yuuzhan Vong war, but eventually Mon Calamari became favored over the ancient planet. It can be assumed that even after the Yuuzhan Vong War had ended Empress Teta continued to rival Coruscant in the Deep Core, continuing with the Galactic Alliance.
  • Taris: The planet was situated on the Perlemian Trade Route and became a major economic center in ages past, beginning in 4,300 BBY. However, several new, shorter trade routes were discovered, rendering Taris obsolete. Without the support of the Republic, the planet fell into ruin and disrepair. Taris's surface was devastated by Darth Malak in 3,956 BBY, during the Jedi Civil War.
  • Eriadu: Located on the Hydian Way, this prosperous (though highly polluted) world served as the capital of the Outer Rim (that began in 900 BBY) in the waning days of the Old Republic, the time of the Empire, and during the rise of the New Republic. However, it lost its glory after the Yuuzhan Vong war.
  • Muunilinst: This economic powerhouse had backed the galactic currencies since the inception of the Galactic Credit Standard and remained at the center of the galactic economy. Although not rivaling Coruscant politically, its economic power remained as strong as ever, if not stronger as shown after the Battle of Muunilinst which led the galaxy to the brink of financial ruin. After this it became the financial center of the Empire and remained in this position long after. After the Yuuzhan Vong war Muunilinst, along with Mygeeto, no longer had a tie in with Coruscant and by 40 ABY the Imperial Remnant had control of its credit harvest.

Behind the scenes

Sunset on Coruscant.

Coruscant first appeared in the Expanded Universe and was called such for the first time in Timothy Zahn's Heir to the Empire in 1991. Coruscant wasn't seen on screen until the 1997 Special Edition release of Return of the Jedi, and then later appeared in The Phantom Menace. Coruscant is therefore one of the few EU elements that made its way in to the films.

The name "Coruscant" comes from the Latin verb "coruscare" meaning "to sparkle" or "to glitter", probably referring to the night side of the planetwide city. Traditionally pronounced with a hard 'c' – ko'-rus-kant' – the word is pronounced Ko'-ru-sant in the Star Wars Universe, but only after the "real-world" introduction of The Phantom Menace. Beforehand, audiobooks, dramatizations, and the like used the hard 'c' pronunciation. Uniquely, in the Chuck Benson reading of the unabridged Thrawn trilogy, it is pronounced "kuhruskant."

Coruscant, which was then called "Alderaan", was to appear in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, but the budget wouldn't allow, so a lot of action on Alderaan was moved to the Death Star and Alderaan became the name of Leia Organa's home planet, which is destroyed in the film. The concept of seeing the Empire's home world, renamed "Had Abbadon", came up again in Return of the Jedi, and the concept of the entire planet being a city came up for the first time. However, it was realized that such a city on screen would be impossible given the technical limitations at the time, and so the idea was abandoned.

In various novels, characters aligned with the Empire refer to Coruscant as "Imperial Center". Within the stories, this is explained as an administrative renaming undertaken to emphasize the differences between the Old Republic and the Empire.

Some fans, despite the use of the words "A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away" in the opening of each Star Wars film, have imagined that the Star Wars saga takes place in the far future, and speculated that Coruscant is a futuristic Earth. However, Coruscant has four moons to Earth's one, and is the sixth planet rather than the third from its sun. Moreover, Earth is much farther from the core of the Milky Way galaxy than Coruscant is supposed to be (25,000 to 28,000 light years to Coruscant's 10,000 light years). The question of how Humans ended up in the Star Wars galaxy has never really been asked or answered in any canonical source.

The PC game Star Wars: Rebellion mistakenly places Coruscant in the Sesswenna Sector (a misspelling of the true Seswenna Sector) of the Galactic Core. The Seswenna Sector is actually located in the Outer Rim.

Inconsistencies

A different version of Coruscant, as seen in the Star Wars: TIE Fighter Collector's CD-ROM.

In the large volume of material that exists relating to Coruscant, there are conflicting statements about the ecumenopolis; inconsistencies are found mainly in sources released before 1999 when Coruscant has been established in The Phantom Menace.

Most sources, including all illustrations, show Coruscant as having negligible surface water, save for the ice caps. However, the Black Fleet Crisis Trilogy states that Coruscant has two continents, a large one that contains Imperial City and a smaller one. More than half of this version of Coruscant is ocean. No other source follows this version (although The Thrawn Trilogy Sourcebook does refer to distinct continents), and the discrepancy is usually solved by referring to the "ocean" as the artificial Western Sea.

Another different version of Coruscant, this time shown in the Shadows of the Empire comic.

The intro of the 1994 game Star Wars: TIE Fighter shows an orbital view of Coruscant, very faithful to the appearance of the planet in the prequel movies as would be seen five years later. However the Collector's edition, which features a remade intro, shows an Earth-like Coruscant, blue with clouds.

Another view of Coruscant, shown in the Shadows of the Empire comic, shows Coruscant as a terrestrial planet as opposed to an ecumenopolis, including green continents and a very large body of water.

Population

One of the most notable inconsistencies concerns the planet's population. Most recent Expanded Universe sources, such as the novel Traitor and the sourcebooks Inside the Worlds of The Phantom Menace and Coruscant and the Core Worlds, have stated a population of one trillion for Coruscant. At the last planetary census around 19 BBY, the population was around one trillion, counting only full-time registered citizens. Including the omitted, such as temporary workers and transients, the real population is said to have been triple the original count.[6]

Inspiration

"Well, if there's a bright center to the universe, you're on the planet that it's farthest from"
Luke Skywalker, quote retconned to refer to Coruscant

The concept of a city covering an entire planet is not entirely new. The planet Trantor in Isaac Asimov's Foundation novels is probably the first fictional planet to be totally urbanized, but it was not the last. Indeed, one of the draft names of Coruscant was Jhantor, in homage to Asimov's work. Later, Expanded Universe sources even used the name Trantor for a planet much like Coruscant.

It has also been speculated that certain aspects of Coruscant were inspired from the look of 2019 Los Angeles in the 1982 Ridley Scott film Blade Runner, including the gigantic pyramid of Tyrell Corporation.

There is also speculation that the Coruscant chase scene in Attack of the Clones was heavily inspired from Luc Besson's The Fifth Element.

Coruscant chosen for the films

Regarding Coruscant appearing in the prequels, Timothy Zahn had this to say at Celebration III:

"Just to make it clear, I did not invent the planet...George Lucas had invented the planetwide city a long time ago. When I was starting the Thrawn Trilogy, they told me to coordinate with the West End Games source material, and they had it listed as the Imperial Planet. Well nobody names a planet 'Imperial Planet,' so I thought it needed a name, so I picked the word that means glittering: 'Coruscant.' Apparently, when it came time to choose a name [for the films], people persuaded George to go with Coruscant and be done with it. So I felt very vindicated -- the tail wagging the dog. It was an honor to be slipped into the movies this way."

Appearances

Non-canon appearances

Sources

Notes and references

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15  Coruscant: Center of the Empire on Wizards.com (article)
  2. The Complete Star Wars Encyclopedia
  3. 3.0 3.1 The Essential Atlas
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Star Wars: Empire at War: Prima Official Game Guide
  5. Galactic Campaign Guide
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Coruscant Nights I: Jedi Twilight
  7. Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (novel)
  8. The Paradise Snare
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Star Wars: Complete Locations
  10. Inside the Worlds of Star Wars Episode I
  11. Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith
  12. Star Wars: TIE Fighter
  13. Shadows of Coruscant
  14. Star Wars: The New Droid Army
  15. Star Wars Republic 61: Dead Ends
  16. Star Wars Republic 63: Striking from the Shadows
  17. X-wing: Wedge's Gamble
  18. Jedi Search
  19. The New Rebellion
  20. Vision of the Future
  21. 21.0 21.1 Star Wars: Union

See also

Wookieepedia has a collection of images related to Coruscant.

External links


This article uses material from the "Coruscant" article on the Starwars wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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