|Grand Army of the Republic|
Partially in 10 BBY
The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), also known as the clone army or Republic Army, was the main part of the armed forces of the Galactic Republic in its final years, becoming one of the largest armies ever assembled, although not as large as the Separatist Droid Army. After the Clone Wars, it served as the nucleus for the armed forces of the Galactic Empire.
After the initial engagements, over a million more clone units were added to the ranks of the army, followed by numerous additional divisions. The Republic spent much of its waning wealth on grand armies and fleets, making it one of the largest militaries ever assembled by the end of the war.
At the beginning of the Palpatine administration (32 BBY), the Republic had no standing armed forces, though the debate about the reinstatement of an army and navy had been ongoing for decades. At one time, the Republic's military forces were considerable, but in the wake of the New Sith Wars (1,000 BBY), a gradual process of downscaling began, in favor of increased support from the Jedi Order.
More and more often, the Jedi were called upon to act as negotiators with teeth. But as crises piled upon each other, some within the Order began to sense a coming darkness, which their numbers alone would not be sufficient to fight. The creation of a clone army was secretly ordered by Jedi Master Sifo-Dyas without the knowledge or approval of his comrades, in response to the growing shadow in the Force, though his army was soon discovered by Darth Sidious who plotted to use the clone army and its emergency codes for his own plans.
The GAR's first engagement would be at the Battle of Geonosis, where it successfully routed an unexpecting droid army. However, this merely started off the much larger Clone Wars, in which the army took heavy losses.
Though the clone troopers fought under the Jedi for most of the Clone Wars, Supreme Chancellor/Emperor Palpatine wrested executive control over the army from the Jedi late in the war, and used the army to destroy the Order at the start of the Great Jedi Purge when he created the Galactic Empire on the eve of the war's end. Palpatine quickly transformed the clone army into the Stormtrooper Corps and integrated it into the military of his new Empire.
Before the end of the war, the Sector Governance Decree was issued, which placed governors on every world of the Republic, along with their own force of clone troopers. It also created the position of Moff or sector governor. Fearing for the future of democracy and the Senate's powers, this decision was one of several protested by the Delegation of 2000, but they were overruled. Governors and their clone regiments began arriving on their designated worlds soon after.
The total amount of clones involved in the war is not known, as their ranks were bolstered by new stocks and volunteers as the fighting dragged on. With the formation of the Galactic Empire, the Grand Army of the Republic ceased to exist and was reorganized into the Imperial Army. All military personnel of the GAR were required to swear allegiance to the new government in order to remain on active duty and those that refused were branded as deserters and traitors after which they were hunted down and executed.
During the Galactic Civil War, clones of Jango Fett's lineage made up about 1/3 of all stormtroopers in the Galactic Empire, but it is not known how many were left from the Clone Wars by the start of the Galactic Civil War.
The army was split into separate Orders of Battle (ORBATs). These were regular forces, and special forces. Most of the structure of the regular forces was unchanged through the Clone Wars and was even used by the Galactic Empire. The special forces were highly independent clone commandos that had specific objectives and required very little help from Jedi commanders.
The GAR is actually the second armed force in the prequels to be given the name "grand army". The first was the Gungan Grand Army from The Phantom Menace. No one has yet explained Lucas's penchant for using this term for his military organizations, though it can be speculated that he was fond of the name of Napoleon Bonaparte's imperial armed forces, the Grand Army or La Grande Armée.
As Karen Traviss is one of the people who has written extensively about the Grand Army of the Republic, the terminology used in the Expanded Universe by the Grand Army is similar to that of the British Armed Forces, as Traviss herself is British.
Also, the name "Grand Army of the Republic" uses the same formalized language as armed forces used in the American Civil War (1861-1865). Though the overall Union Army (also known as the Northern Army or Federal Army) was named simply, its major units were given formal designations based on rivers. Thus, they were named Army of the Potomac, Army of the Ohio, Army of the Tennessee, and so on. One unit in particular, which newspapers referred to as the Grand Army of the West, was commanded by General William Tecumseh Sherman during his march through the South, and it may be this that inspired Lucas as well. It should also be noted that the post-Civil War Union veterans' association was known as the "Grand Army of the Republic".
The Confederate States Army, or CSA, named its units after states or geographic regions rather than rivers, such as the Army of Northern Virginia, the Army of Tennessee, the Army of the Peninsula, and the Army of the Northwest. The Confederate veterans' organization was known as the United Confederate Veterans.
The ongoing references to the American Civil War may be one of Lucas's subtle ways of utilizing the language of the actual Civil War to flesh out his own fictitious civil war. This is likely also why he used the name "Confederacy" to refer to the breakaway segments of the Republic, as opposed to some other name.
There has been controversy regarding the actual number of clones that comprised the Grand Army of the Republic. In Attack of the Clones, the Kaminoan prime minister, Lama Su, informed Obi-Wan Kenobi that 200,000 "units" were ready for deployment immediately prior to the outbreak of the Clone Wars, with a million more "well on the way". Although the film itself does not elaborate on what Su meant when he spoke of "units", the novelization and most Expanded Universe sources have treated the term as though it referred to individual clones (in the novelization, it is assumed by Kenobi that one unit equals one clone). This is backed up by a statement in Inside the Worlds of Star Wars: Attack of the Clones (p. 21): "When Obi-Wan arrives, Tipoca is already primed to deliver 200,000 clone troops, while facilities across the planet are equipped to produce millions more."
This means that, at the beginning of the war, the Grand Army would have consisted of 200,000 clones, increasing in number quickly to 1,200,000, a figure apparently attained by the time of Shatterpoint (written by Matthew Stover), set six months after the Battle of Geonosis. A figure of ~3 million clones was cited in the article Guide to the Grand Army of the Republic and the novel Republic Commando: Triple Zero (both written by Karen Traviss, with Ryan Kaufman as co-author on the Guide...), set a year after Geonosis.
In a later discussion on TheForce.net's literature boards, statements were made by Kaufman denying that this was treated as a definitive figure for the total army:
Additionally, most stories made since AOTC have shown dozens of battles, during many of which the clones sustained massive losses, casting doubt about arguments that they represented a "small, elite, special operations force" compared with regular battle droids. The Cestus Deception states that a million clones have died, and this is only as of 21 BBY, at most a year after the Geonosis invasion.
Some fans point to the existence of Spaarti clones, and the massive number of recruits as possible explanations for high troop figures. Recruitment was mentioned in The Story of General Grievous: Lord of War and The New Essential Chronology, and non-clone forces were seen in Jedi Trial. Along with recruiting, one notable Jedi General Rahm Kota had his own serving Militia, as he saw the clones as unfit for battle. Spaarti cloning technology did not become available to the Republic until eight months after the Battle of Muunilinst, however, and the entire need for the clone army arose from the fact that the Republic had no central military organization to organize and carry out a war against the Separatist forces.
From sources like Star Wars: Jedi Starfighter and Nomad, and even through various Star Wars: Republic comics and the novels Labyrinth of Evil and Jedi Trial, there are several instances before and after the Battle of Geonosis showing non-clone soldiers serving as the majority of forces in military conflicts and being actively recruited by various military organizations. The reliability and quality of mercenaries and bounty hunters would not be high, and having large numbers of non-clone troops available from the outset of the war would have eliminated the need for a clone army and ended/prevented the controversy over the Military Creation Act. It should also be stated that the sources that depict non-clone forces prior to Geonosis are all referring to small-scale conflicts and minor battles.
Additionally, the non-clone military forces in the Battle of Praesitlyn in Jedi Trial were largely non-Republic mercenary forces. The Sons and Daughters of Freedom mercenary group, which contained 50,000 infantry troops and thousands more serving as armored unit and starship crew members, had its number of active members reduced to fewer than 2,000 operatives by the end of the battle. Moreover, the non-clone Praesitlyn Defense Force is entirely wiped out by the droid invasion force, with its own commander stating that non-clones are far capable at combating battle droids. Likewise, while the Republic force sent to Praesitlyn consisted of only 20,000 clones, as well as additional non-clones, the only non-clones described in the novel are member of either the command staff, starship crews, or support personnel. When that force faced off against the Separatist force of over one million droids, the clones took extremely heavy casualties and would have lost the battle had it not been for two successful suicide missions undertaken by the commanding Jedi General against the Separatist leadership.
Most of the initial clones would go on to fight in the Battle of Geonosis, with 192,000 clone troopers deployed on the battlefield there (Star Wars: Complete Locations, p. 88), and an unknown number serving as crew aboard the twelve Acclamator-class assault ships that landed troops on the surface or the "thousands" of Republic ships descending upon the grounded Confederate fleet (Attack of the Clones novel).
The ground troops suffered a large number of casualties; reports on the ships arriving at the medical facilities stationed at Ord Mantell listed 12,000 in need of triage, 8,000 walking wounded, and 72,000 combat-fit troops (Republic Commando: Hard Contact). General Grievous personally killed "entire clone trooper companies" or at least 288 troopers plus officers according to Unknown Soldier: The Story of General Grievous. The 100,000 missing troops in the Ord Mantell report indicates either the use of multiple bases, that 100,000 was considered an appropriate garrison force (since one was established after the destruction of the Geonosis foundries in Star Wars: Complete Locations), or that the Grand Army suffered over 50% casualties in its first victory.
The Revised Core Rulebook states that the Republic immediately ordered 1,000 more Acclamators, indicating an army of at least 16 million troops, though whether they were intended for use by clones or non-clones is still in contention. Additionally, Traviss's own Triple Zero states that (at least up to that point of the war) all Acclamators are fully crewed by clones; combined with the twelve Acclamators present at Geonosis, that would mean that around 713,000 clones (or 23% the entire fighting force of the Republic) were tied up as largely noncombatant ship crews.
Labyrinth of Evil describes clones being an omnipresent force on Coruscant, acting as security and anti-terrorism forces. Revenge of the Sith: The Visual Dictionary also states that clone troopers are an "ubiquitous" presence on Coruscant and other worlds.
The Sector Governance Decree, individual governors were assigned to each and every planet in the Republic with regiments for their "protection." (Revenge of the Sith novel). These actions were occurring at a time when the Republic forces were stretched thin and to the point of being pushed out of system after system (Revenge of the Sith novel) as well as conducting the lengthy Outer Rim Sieges (Star Wars: Clone Wars, Revenge of the Sith).
It is not surprising that Lama Su stated that all clones take this long in Attack of the Clones, as the Kaminoans were businesspeople, and they were known to boast that their advanced model clones were the same as the stock units, just renamed to encourage higher sales (Star Wars: The Pengalan Tradeoff).
The largest figure given for the Grand Army, so far, was millions of clone divisions, which were undergoing intense combat evaluation at the start of the war. This information was stated in Inside the Worlds of Star Wars: Attack of the Clones (written by Simon Beecroft and Curtis Saxton), a book dealing directly with the worlds presented in the film. It was later restated in Star Wars: Complete Locations, which gathered information from the previous three Inside... books, as well as new pieces of information.
As to the disparity with the numbers of battle droids, the short story, Odds, suggested that the CIS only had hundreds of millions of battle droids, with the larger figures being chalked up to propaganda on the part of Palpatine. This directly contradicts the article The Story of General Grievous: Lord of War, which stated that Grievous commanded several quintillion droids. Any Republic propaganda dedicated towards its own people would have had little impact on the enemy's supreme commander, who has actual access to his own troops. On the other hand, the numbers given in The Story of General Grievous: Lord of War are somehow flawed by the huge disparity between the number of its various mechanized war machines (battle droids, Vulture droids, tri-fighters, tank droids, Hailfire droids, etc.), said to be only in the billions, and the quintillions that Grievous commanded. Standard battle droids are produced much quicker and are more dispensable than droid vehicles, however, and the "quintillions of battle droids" could also include CIS droids not used in battle (such as OOM pilot battle droids). Also on Star Wars: the Clone Wars - "Ambush", Count Dooku stated to king Katunko "Our droid armies outnumber the Republic clones 100 to one", which, if taken literally, would put the numbers of Clones in the quadrillions.
Revenge of the Sith: Incredible Cross-Sections also noted that, because of millions of Separatist warships being locked up in battles with Republic fleets, only a few thousand frigates and destroyers could assault the galactic capital towards the end of the war, accompanied by dozens of battleships. The Revenge of the Sith novelization states (from the out-of-universe perspective of the narrator) that the CIS had pursued the war to that point through sheer force of numbers, with its droids outnumbering the clones, and even implies that the Confederacy was actually winning at several points.
With the Dorling Kindersley line of books (which first mentioned specific droid numbers), being written from an out-of-universe perspective, high droid numbers would have been stated matter-of-factly, and any deception would have been noted (as it was with the mention of Invisible Hand trading places with its sister-ships, in DK's ROTS:ICS).
It should also be borne in mind that a battle droid is not directly equivalent to a clone trooper; standard B1 battle droids were cheap, expendable units, often used for foot patrol in civilian areas. They were typically deployed for combat in massed units that lacked the initiative and versatility of real soldiers, relying instead on sheer numbers to overwhelm opposition, although elite droids like B2 super battle droids and droidekas were both numerous and relatively intelligent. Odds also depicts extensive sabotage of droid production lines. According to the story, the weakened droids are significantly easier for the clones to destroy, although clones have been shown being gunned down with similar ease. However, it is doubtful that the Republic managed to sabotage all major droid foundries.
Additionally, from the Journal of the 501st, it seems even elite units held a negative view of relatively small odds:
The statement that only a few dozen ships were seen on-screen in the Star Wars: Clone Wars cartoon bears little meaning, as many battles in Star Wars are often fleshed out in different sources. The same series also showed hundreds of Providence-class carrier/destroyers in the Battle of Coruscant, yet some people treat this as unreliable.
Another possibility is that when Lama Su mentioned that there were 200,000 clone troopers ready for deployment, with a million more on the way, he could have been referring to only those troopers being trained in Tipoca City, although this assumption conflicts with Obi-Wan Kenobi's statements during the Battle of Kamino:
One last solution is to return to the vague term "unit" which Lama Su mentioned. If a "unit" were to be referring to one of the battalions of 576 troopers (seen on Coruscant), then 200,000 of these would render 115,200,000 clones and the 1,000,000 others spoken of as 576,000,000. This grand total of 691,200,000 would be far more suitable for the core of a galactic army. Futhermore, if a "unit" refers to a real-life division of 15,000 men, the 1,200,000 units would equal a force of 18,000,000,000 clones, a truly "grand" army, suitable for defeating the huge numbers of droids under the Confederacy.
However, the actual number of clone soldiers which can be seen standing in each formation at the end of Attack of the Clones amounts to 624 (26 per column and 24 per row), showing a disparity with the numbers presented in the Guide to the Grand Army. If a unit indeed amounts to one battalion, this would mean that the grand total of clones was 1,728,000,000, considering the 3 million units that many sources state, and counting a unit as a battalion of 576 clones.
Furthermore, it it should be noted that all planetary and judicial forces loyal to the Republic were folded into the Grand Army, allowing the Republic, which enjoyed a large population advantage over the CIS to make up for the number of battle droids with possibly hundreds of trillions of organic, non-clone soldiers. However, conscription of civilians is implied to have not taken place in a statement by Chancellor Palpatine, due to potential political consequences. Though this implication is contradicted in the New Essential Chronology by the following statement:
Thus is it is most likely that the Grand Army was combination of clones, draftees, and troops from local planetary armies.
In addition, the Confederate battleship Malevolence was known to have made at least fourteen attacks, of which at least two of which occurred against three ship task forces. Assuming that the other twelve were assaults on single ships, which seems unlikely, and that the ships were Venator Star Destroyers, which would fit with their prominence in this era and the relative importance of the Malevolence, there must have been at least 126,000 clone casualties in crews alone. If these vessels were fully loaded, the casualty count rises to 180000, over a tenth of the supposed number of combat ready clones. As the chief concern over the Malevolence was its ability to destroy the ships without any indication of its nature and not the casualties, this would seem to indicate a much larger clone army than stated in certain sources.
In Attack of The Clones, it is stated that there are too many clones for the droids to combat. However, there are supposed to be around 3 million droids present at the battle, an army easily large enough to handle the 200,000 clones.
However, this comment was made by Count Dooku, replying to Nute Gunray's suggestion to "send all available droids into battle." Dooku desired a long, difficult war. The droids probably had a good chance of withstanding the Clone invasion. Dooku needed the war to facilitate his rise to power with Palpatine. In StarWars: The Clone Wars the videogame, an order is given to destroy the Droid Coreships, as "each one houses enough firepower to threaten an entire planet." A similar description is given through Obi-Wan's thoughts in the novelization Episode II. The CIS forces had a fair chance of holding out against the Republic longer, which may have lead to a shortage in troops later in the war.
If one adds up numbers of command authorities though: there are 4 clone marshal commanders per sector army which means there are 160 in the Grand army thus 640 senior clone commanders, etc (multiply the last number by 4, except for platoon to squad (there are 3 squads in a platoon) and you get 5,133,600 clones in the conventional GAR, if one adds the 10,000 from the Special Operating Brigade the number comes to 5,143,600 clones. This of course does not count non-clone forces. This number, however, probably does not include clone forces serving in the Republic Navy (separate of the GAR) which would (more likely than not) increase the total number some more.
The Grand Army of the Republic was the primary military force of the Galactic Republic during the Clone Wars. It ultimately became the Imperial Army of the Galactic Empire, with its clone troopers adopting the mantle of stormtroopers. The Grand Army had a peak strength of 300 trillion clones.