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Star Wars Episode I:
The Phantom Menace

George Lucas


Rick McCallum


George Lucas


Liam Neeson
Ewan McGregor
Natalie Portman
Jake Lloyd
Ian McDiarmid

Music by

John Williams


20th Century Fox


May 19, 1999


133 min. (theatrical)
136 min. (DVD)






32 BBY


Rise of the Empire era

Followed by

Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones

"Every saga has a beginning."

Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace is a 1999 science fantasy film written and directed by George Lucas. It was the fourth film to be released in the Star Wars saga, and the first in terms of internal chronology. Among fans, the title is commonly abbreviated as "TPM."

The film begins as two Jedi, assigned as ambassadors to resolve a trade dispute, arrive in orbit of the threatened planet Naboo. When the situation turns violent, the Jedi, along with Padmé Amidala, the planet's queen, flee Naboo in an attempt to reach the capital world of the Galactic Republic, Coruscant. There they hope to find a peaceful end to the dispute. Along the way, the ship must stop for repairs on the planet Tatooine. It is there that the Jedi encounter Anakin Skywalker, a young slave boy who is unusually strong with the Force. When the group returns to Naboo, they realize that the situation is much worse than they had at first thought: the evil Sith, ancient enemies of the Jedi, have returned.

The release of the film on May 19, 1999 came almost 16 years after the release of the last film in the series, Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. The release was accompanied by extensive media coverage and great anticipation. Despite mixed reviews by critics and fans, it grossed $924.3 million worldwide, making it the highest-grossing film of the entire Star Wars saga.


Opening crawl

Episode I
Turmoil has engulfed the
Galactic Republic. The taxation
of trade routes to outlying star
systems is in dispute.

Hoping to resolve the matter
with a blockade of deadly
battleships, the greedy Trade
Federation has stopped all
shipping to the small planet
of Naboo.

While the congress of the
Republic endlessly debates
this alarming chain of events,
the Supreme Chancellor has
secretly dispatched two Jedi
Knights, the guardians of
peace and justice in the
galaxy, to settle the conflict....


"I have a bad feeling about this."
"I don't sense anything."
"It's not the mission, Master. It's something…elsewhere…elusive."
―Obi-Wan Kenobi to Qui-Gon Jinn
Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan prepare to fight their way out of the Trade Federation flagship.

It is the year 32 BBY, and a trade dispute between the Trade Federation and the outlying systems of the Galactic Republic has led to a blockade of the small planet of Naboo. Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum, leader of the Galactic Senate, has secretly dispatched two Jedi, Master Qui-Gon Jinn and his Padawan, Obi-Wan Kenobi, as ambassadors to the Federation flagship, Saak'ak, in order to meet with Viceroy Nute Gunray and resolve the dispute. Unknown to them, the Trade Federation is in league with the mysterious Darth Sidious, Dark Lord of the Sith, who secretly orders Gunray to invade Naboo and kill the two Jedi upon their arrival. Their ship, Radiant VII, is destroyed and the two Jedi escape the assassination attempt by using knight speed to get away from the destroyer droids and stowing themselves aboard two separate Federation landing craft leaving for the surface of Naboo.

The Jedi liberate the Queen and her guards from the battle droid invasion.

On the planet's surface, Qui-Gon saves local native outcast Jar Jar Binks from being trampled by a MTT. Later, STAPs attack but are destroyed by the two Jedi. Jar Jar Binks shows the two Jedi the way to an underwater Gungan settlement, Otoh Gunga, escaping the Trade Federation army. Meanwhile, the Trade Federation invades Naboo and captures their leader, Queen Padmé Amidala. The Jedi meet the Gungan leader, Boss Rugor Nass, and ask him to help the people of Naboo, but Nass refuses and sends them off in a bongo submarine. They are attacked by an opee sea killer but the fish is eaten by a sando aqua monster. The Jedi, with Binks in tow, reach Theed, the capital city of Naboo, and rescue Queen Amidala from the Trade Defense Force. They depart for Coruscant, the Galactic Republic's capital planet, to ask for help from the Senate. An astromech droid named R2-D2 manages to repair the Queen's starship and they narrowly escape an attack from Federation battleships.

Due to the damage the ship's hyperdrive sustained in the attack, the Queen's party is forced to land on the desert planet of Tatooine for repairs. While searching for a new hyperdrive generator, they befriend young Anakin Skywalker, a slave boy, whose master is Watto, a Toydarian junk dealer.

Anakin races ahead of Sebulba during the Boonta Eve Podrace.

Anakin is gifted with piloting and mechanics, and has built an almost-complete droid named C-3PO. Qui-Gon Jinn senses a strong presence of the Force in Anakin, and feels that he may be the Chosen One who will fulfill a prophecy by bringing balance to the Force. By entering Anakin into a podrace, Qui-Gon orchestrates a gamble in which the boy (alone, since Qui-Gon was unable to include the youth's mother in the bargain) will be released from slavery and they will win the parts needed for their ship. Anakin wins the race and joins the team as they head for Coruscant, where Qui-Gon plans to seek permission from the Jedi High Council to train Anakin to be a Jedi. Meanwhile, Darth Sidious sends his apprentice, Darth Maul, to kill the two Jedi and capture the Queen. Maul appears just as the group is leaving the planet, and duels with Qui-Gon. The fight is cut short when Qui-Gon manages to escape his black-robed assailant by jumping onboard the Naboo Royal Starship as it takes off.

Amidala and Palpatine plead before the Senate to intervene with Naboo's crisis.

On Coruscant, Qui-Gon informs the Jedi Council of the mysterious attacker he encountered on Tatooine. Because of that being's obvious mastery of the Jedi arts, the Council becomes concerned that this development may indicate the reappearance of the Sith, a religious order who were followers of the dark side of the Force and thought to be long gone. Qui-Gon also informs the Council about Anakin, hoping that he can be trained as a Jedi. After testing the boy and deliberating with one another, the Council refuses, deeming him too old for training according to the Jedi Code. They are also concerned due to their sensing of a seemingly clouded future and a strong presence of fear in the boy. Meanwhile, Senator Palpatine (of Naboo), warning of the corruption in the Senate, advises Queen Amidala to call for a vote of no confidence in Chancellor Valorum. Seeing no alternative, the Queen takes this advice when she addresses the Senate. Palpatine is among the candidates to replace the Supreme Chancellor, and the Queen later announces to Palpatine that she herself will return to their home planet to repel the invasion of her people. She is frustrated by the Senate's deliberation and lack of action, and feels that even if Palpatine is elected Chancellor, it will be too late. The Jedi Council send the two Jedi to accompany the Queen back to Naboo, hoping to shed light on any Sith involvement.

Boss Nass at the Gungan Sacred Place

Queen Amidala, back on Naboo, forms an alliance with the Gungan people, uniting in battle against the Trade Federation. Nute Gunray is ordered by Darth Sidious to wipe out the Gungans and the Naboo as the Trade Federation prepares for battle. Captain Roos Tarpals orders the Gungan Grand Army to start up their shield, to protect them from ranged attack. OOM-9 has his tanks fire first, but seeing them fail to penetrate the powerful shield, orders them to cease fire. Daultay Dofine gives the command to activate the battle droids. These droids march through the shield, and its generator is destroyed. After much fighting against the Federation's droid army, defeat for the alliance seems imminent.

However, victory comes when young Anakin Skywalker accidentally takes control of a starfighter and goes on to destroy the Federation's Droid Control Ship, killing Daultay Dofine and rendering the droid army useless. Meanwhile, Queen Amidala and her force fight their way back into the royal palace and capture Nute Gunray.

Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan fight against Darth Maul during the Battle of Naboo.

At the same time, in a Theed hangar bay, Darth Maul has been engaging in combat with the two Jedi, using a double-bladed lightsaber. The battle moves from the hangar, across a series of catwalks, to the Theed Generator Complex. During the fight, Obi-Wan is separated from his master when he is kicked off of a catwalk and falls. He grabs the edge of another catwalk below and jumps back up to where Qui-Gon and Maul continue to fight. By this time, Qui-Gon and Maul have become separated by a force field in the entrance to the Generator Room. Obi-Wan catches up to them, but is divided from his master by several force fields. When the force fields deactivate, Jinn and the Sith continue their battle while Kenobi remains divided from the battle when the force fields reactivate. Maul suddenly hits Qui-Gon Jinn on the chin with his lightsaber handle, stunning him, then rams his lightsaber straight into Qui-Gon's chest, mortally wounding him. Heartbroken, Obi-Wan redoubles his assault upon Darth Maul and chops Maul's lightsaber in half, but the Sith almost kills Kenobi when he Force pushes him to the edge of a melting pit. Obi-Wan saves himself from falling when he manages to grab onto a pipe protruding from the wall of the pit. Darth Maul kicks the Jedi's lightsaber into the pit and prepares to finish him off. The Padawan calms himself, using the Force to jump out of the pit and summons his fallen Master's lightsaber to his hand. Within an instant he lands behind the surprised Maul and cuts him in half, the Sith's body falling into the pit.

Just before passing away, Qui-Gon instructs Obi-Wan to train Anakin to become a Jedi. Obi-Wan gives his word that he will. The newly-elected Chancellor Palpatine arrives to congratulate Queen Amidala on her victory, as Nute Gunray is sent to stand trial for his crimes.

The Gungans and Naboo celebrate their victory.

After the battle, the Jedi Council names Obi-Wan a Jedi Knight. Kenobi conveys his Master's wish regarding Anakin Skywalker to Yoda, who reluctantly allows him to become Obi-Wan's apprentice. Qui-Gon's body is cremated, and Mace Windu and Yoda agree that the Sith are definitely to blame for the tragedy. Being that there are only ever two Sith at any given time (a Master and an apprentice), both Masters believe that one must still remain.

The Naboo and Gungans organize a great victory celebration on the streets of Theed, in front on the palace. Obi-Wan and Anakin are present, the younger now wearing formal Jedi attire, and in his hair is a special braid: the mark of a Jedi Padawan. Queen Amidala presents a gift of appreciation and friendship to Boss Nass and the Gungan people.





Much of the primary crew of The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles TV series and Radioland Murders feature film carried over to the prequels.


By type
Characters Creatures Droid models Events Locations
Organizations and titles Sentient species Vehicles and vessels Weapons and technology Miscellanea



Droid models



Organizations and titles

Sentient species

Vehicles and vessels

Weapons and technology


Behind the scenes

Sources and inspirations

While Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress has often been seen as a source of inspiration for Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, The Phantom Menace's middle section on Tatooine, with its series of nonviolent bargaining and twists of chance, demonstrates the strongest correspondence to Japanese film in the Saga. Queen Amidala's escape from an invading enemy and posing as a handmaiden while visiting the lower classes on Tatooine also echoes Kurosawa's film, especially in its emphasis on social consciousness.

The podrace sequence on Tatooine appears heavily influenced, if not lifted wholesale, from the chariot race in Ben-Hur. Other films likely to have influenced the pod race are Nicholas Ray's Rebel Without a Cause, which featured actor James Dean, a partial inspiration for Anakin Skywalker's character, and John Frankenheimer's Grand Prix, which not only features the Japanese actor Toshiro Mifune but also features camerawork done by Lucas himself.

Starting with this episode, the Star Wars Saga, especially the first three episodes and even more especially the third chapter, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, deal heavily with the character type of the mastermind typical to the multiple genres Lucas's work belongs to. The dual character of Palpatine/Darth Sidious is probably the most noteworthy Star Wars character from this aspect: controlling and manipulating the events of the films, such as the invasion of Naboo and Valorum's impeachment, from afar. This character has precedent in countless comic books, movies, and novels, but is especially in debt to the arch-villains of serial fiction and films of the early 20th century. The two most relevant characters are Fantomas ("The Phantom") and Norbert Jacque's Dr. Mabuse, immortalized on screen by German director Fritz Lang. Lucas implicitly labels Palpatine, who like Mabuse uses mind control and secret identities to shape events on large political and economic scales, as the film's Phantom Menace, tying him to the French villain.

Politically, this film may be the most concretely complicated of all the Star Wars films.

The key political decisions in this film revolve around the impeachment of a chief executive—Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum—in order to elect a new leader of stronger moral principles—eventual Emperor Palpatine— The motivations of the Trade Federation in the film, moreover, revolve around their refusal to cooperate with the Republic's taxes


Along the lines of The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, all three prequel films were originally intended to be written and shot as one large production, and released back-to-back.[1]

The budget of Menace was estimated US$115 million. Shooting took place from June 26 to September 30, 1997. As with Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, Episode I's main exterior filming locations were in Tunisia. The podrace was filmed in a canyon near Sidi Bouhlel and Oung Jmel. A set was built near Oung Jmel to represent Mos Espa on Tatooine. The Slave Quarters Row were filmed in ksour's near Tataouine and Ksar Medenine. Small parts were filmed in Royal Caserta Palace in Italy, Whippendell Woods and Hever Castle in the United Kingdom, but Hever Castel was later cut. Studio work was mainly done at Leavesden Studios in the United Kingdom. More studio work is rumored to have taken place at CTV Services in Tunisia.

Unlike the latter two films in the series which were shot on digital video, most of this film was shot in 35 mm, with a few scenes shot in digital video.

This episode was also the first of the Saga to be referred to primarily by its number (Episode One) by media and fans, to contrast it with the classical saga the public already knew. This reference also gave finally some sense to the riddling numbers IV-VI of the previous movies.

In contrast to the more self-explanatory titles of the other films, the title, "The Phantom Menace" is ambiguous. It is usually suggested that the title refers to either of the two Sith, or the Sith Order itself. The title could also refer to the origin of Darth Sidious's name, which is the adjective insidious. The Oxford Dictionary gives the following definition:

Full of wiles or plots; lying in wait or seeking to entrap or ensnare; proceeding or operating secretly or subtly so as not to excite suspicion; sly, treacherous, deceitful, underhand, artful, cunning, crafty, wily. (Of persons and things.)

So the word phantom in the title of Episode I could be referring to the Dark Lord of the Sith and menace to the meaning of the name "Sidious." Another possible meaning of the title is a subtle indication at the ultimate outcome of the Saga—the birth of Darth Vader.

A further theory is based upon the understanding that the central menace of the movie, the Neimoidian dominated Trade Federation's blockade and invasion of Naboo, is itself nothing more than a phantom, a piece of political misdirection wrought by Darth Sidious as part of the machinations designed to bring about the ultimate victory of the Sith. In this sense, the key outcome of this movie is the elevation of Palpatine to the office of Chancellor—an outcome that would have resulted had the Trade Federation's gambit succeeded or failed. The keystone of the plot is the plight of the Naboo arousing a sympathy vote in the Senate. While the heroes are focused on combating the threat to Naboo, they are unwitting pawns in a connivance of far greater scope.

However, while all these theories are possible, they are also likely too literal for such base interpretation. The "Phantom Menace" is most likely a simple allusion to future dark events that are unclear. Until the time of Episode I the Galaxy has been largely at peace. The events of Episode I trigger a cascade of events that will put the Galaxy under Sith rule for decades.

Therefore, the best interpretation is that "The Phantom Menace" does not refer to a single entity or event, but rather to the notion of impending evil that nobody can truly foresee. In fact, Obi-Wan even makes an allusion to it right at the beginning of the movie:


The Phantom Menace received enormous media-created hype, which made Lucasfilm's $20 million advertising campaign – with the distinctive artwork of Star Wars series artist Drew Struzan gracing the movie poster and other advertising – seem modest and almost unnecessary because of the unprecedented interest amongst both fans and the wider audience in the return of the franchise. Few film studios released films during the same week as the release of The Phantom Menace; among the more courageous were DreamWorks and Universal Studios, with the releases of The Love Letter and Notting Hill respectively. The Love Letter resulted in a box-office flop, whereas Notting Hill fared rather well and followed The Phantom Menace closely in second place.[2] Challenger, Gray & Christmas of Chicago, a work-issues consulting firm, estimated that 2.2 million full-time employees did not appear for work to attend the film, resulting in $293 million in lost productivity. The Wall Street Journal reported that such a large number of workers announced plans to view premiere screenings that many companies shut down on the premiere day.[3] Many fans began waiting outside cinema theaters as early as a month in advance of ticket sales.[4]

More theater lines appeared when it was announced that the film cinemas were not allowed to sell tickets in advance until two weeks into the release. This was done out of fear that family theater-goers would either be unable to receive tickets or would be forced to pay higher prices. Tickets were instead to be sold on a traditional first-come-first-serve basis.[5] However, after meetings with the National Association of Theatre Owners, Lucasfilm agreed to allow advance ticket sales on May 12, 1999, provided that there be a 12-ticket limit per customer.[6] As a result, however, some advance tickets were sold by "scalpers" as high as $100 apiece, which a distribution chief called "horrible", stating it was exactly what they wanted to avoid.[7] Daily Variety reported that theater owners received strict instructions from Lucasfilm that the film could only play in the cinema's largest auditorium for the first 8–12 weeks; no honor passes were allowed for the first eight weeks, and they were obligated to send their payments to distributor 20th Century Fox within seven days.[8] Servers at the film's official website became gridlocked soon after the release of the first teaser trailer,[9] and many fans of the series paid full admission to see Meet Joe Black only to leave after the trailer had run. The same tradition followed months later when the theatrical trailer was featured in front of Wing Commander.[10] The theatrical trailer caused even more notable media hype, because it not only premiered in theaters, but screened at the ShoWest Convention in Las Vegas, and was aired on television on Entertainment Tonight and Access Hollywood.[11] An unusual marketing scheme was pursued across the United Kingdom, where the teaser trailer was released on December 2, 1998 and then pulled from theaters six weeks later.[12]

Despite worries about whether the film would be finished in time, two weeks prior to its debut Lucasfilm pushed the release date up from May 21, 1999 to May 19, 1999. At the ShoWest Convention, Lucas stated that the change was to give the fans a "head start" by allowing them to view it over the week and allowing families the chance to view on the weekends. In a nod toward his future with digital technology, Lucas stated that the film would be released on four digital projectors on June 18, 1999.[13] Eleven charity premieres were staged across the United States on May 16, 1999; receivings from the Los Angeles event were given to the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation with corporate packages available for $5,000-$25,000.[14] Other charity premieres included the Dallas premiere for Children's Medical Center, the Aubrey Fund for Pediatric Cancer Research at the Sloan-Kettering Hospital in New York, the Big Brother/Sister Assn. of the Philadelphia premiere, and the Children's National Medical Center in Washington D.C. A statement said that tickets were sold at $500 apiece and that certain sections were set aside for disadvantaged children.[15]

Critical reaction

Since it was the first Star Wars movie in 16 years, many Star Wars fans were excited when Episode I came out. After an enormous marketing campaign, with the distinctive artwork of Star Wars series artist Drew Struzan gracing the movie poster and other advertising, there was almost unprecedented interest amongst both fans and the wider community in the return of one of the successful movie series. However, critical and fan reaction ranged from high praise to outright derision.

The much-hyped special effects, while generally viewed as groundbreaking in their sheer scope, were perhaps less impressive than anticipated simply because of high expectations. This attitude was confirmed with the rival film, The Matrix, winning the visual effects Academy Award for that year over The Phantom Menace. It was the first time a Star Wars film lost in that Oscar competition category. Many critics heavily criticized the acting of Natalie Portman and especially Jake Lloyd as the young Anakin Skywalker. Some aspects of the scripting and direction were also criticized. Extra venom was directed at the character of Jar Jar Binks, who was regarded by much of the older fan community as purely a merchandising opportunity rather than a serious character in the film. Another source of dissatisfaction comes from the decision to explain the Force in terms of hard science: namely, the introduction of midi-chlorians. Fan reaction was mixed too, with some fans opposing the critics' views while others agreed with the negative opinions.

A number of people anonymously re-edited the film and released their edited versions over the Internet. The most popularly known of these is The Phantom Edit.

However, despite the negative criticisms leveled at the film, many others gave praise to The Phantom Menace. William Arnold, of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer commented that the massive of hype of the film may have caused much of the negative reaction to the film, saying "it built expectations that can't possibly be matched and scuttled element of storytelling surprise". He also felt "it's well made and entertaining" and believed it was much better than similar box office fare released around that time period, such as The Mummy and The Matrix [1]. David Cornelius of remarked that the better moments of the film "don't merely balance out the weaker ones- they topple them" [2]. Roger Ebert gave the film 3 and half out of four stars, calling it "an astonishing achievement in imaginative filmmaking," and stating that "Lucas tells a good story". Ebert comments that it was perfectly fine for the characters being a bit less compelling, seeing that they were just being introduced, and stating to "give me transparent underwater cities and vast hollow senatorial spheres any day." [3] Mark Dinning labels The Phantom Menace "A great work from a great director, and a blockbuster of quite the most swashbuckling kind". Many fans and critics also agree that the lightsaber duel between Qui-Gon, Obi-Wan, and Darth Maul—showcasing astounding choreography and Ray Park's martial arts skills—is a high point, and one of the best lightsaber duels in the entire Star Wars saga.[16]

DVD release

The Phantom Menace on DVD.

Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace was released on DVD in 2001; it was the first Star Wars film to be officially released on DVD. The DVD version of the film had certain scenes and other elements edited and inserted by George Lucas, making it slightly different from its theatrical release while retaining an identical plot. Some scenes were modified, and some that were unfinished by the date of release were added to the film. To date, this is the only "Star Wars" film whose theatrical release is not available on DVD (excepting the 1997 versions of the original trilogy).

The DVD features a commentary track by Lucas, producer Rick McCallum, editor Ben Burtt, animation director Rob Coleman, and visual effects supervisors John Knoll, Dennis Muren, and Scott Squires. It includes seven deleted scenes completed specifically for the DVD, and The Beginning: Making Episode I, an hour-long documentary film drawn from more than 600 hours of footage, including an insider's look at Lucasfilm and ILM during the production. The viewer can access a multi-angle storyboard-to-animatic-to-film segment featuring the submarine and podrace lap 1 sequences. The DVD includes two documentary sources, five featurettes exploring the storyline, design, costumes, visual effects, and fight sequences in the film, and an award-winning twelve-part web documentary series chronicling the production. The Duel of the Fates music video featuring John Williams was included on the DVD as well. The final special features included are a never-before-seen production photo gallery with a special caption feature, theatrical posters and print campaigns from around the world, a theatrical teaser and launch trailers, seven TV spots, Star Wars: Starfighter - The Making of a Game featurette from LucasArts, and a DVD-ROM weblink to exclusive Star Wars content.

The DVD became the fastest selling DVD ever in the US, after 2.2 million copies were sold in its first week after release.[17] However, some reviewers criticized the DVD for the excessive use of edge enhancement that degraded the DVD's picture quality.[18]

At the DVD press conference for Revenge of the Sith, Star Wars prequel trilogy animation director, Rob Coleman confirmed that the animation department at Lucasfilm has replaced the Yoda puppet from the original version of the film with a digital Yoda. This was done to better match up the look of the Yoda from The Phantom Menace with that of the other two films of the prequel trilogy, as well as with the Yoda from the original trilogy. This change has been, for the most part, welcomed by fans, in contrast to the original puppet Yoda as seen in The Phantom Menace.

A preview of these changes can be viewed on the Revenge of the Sith DVD that was released on November 1st, 2005. The clip is included as part of "The Chosen One" featurette. When Coleman announced the change, he didn't, however, specify when the revised version of The Phantom Menace will be released. It is expected to be in an upcoming prequel trilogy box set, however.[19]

Deleted scenes

  • The Waterfall Sequence—As Qui-Gon, Obi-Wan and Jar Jar arrive in the waterways of Theed, in the bongo, they surface just in front of a huge waterfall and have to vacate the vehicle in a hurry.
  • Dawn Before the Podrace—Anakin gets up early to prepare the pod for the race and has a brief chat with Padmé.
  • Complete Podrace Grid Sequence—This scene shows more of the participating racers and creatures in the crowd, later added on DVD.
  • Extended Podrace Lap Two—This lap shows some more of Sebulba's "creative interpretation of the rules" and further proof of just how special Anakin is, later added on DVD.
  • Anakin's Scuffle With Greedo the Elder—This was due to follow the podrace, to show Anakin's potential for aggression, but George Lucas cut it because he wanted Anakin to be shown as a genuinely good kid who turns bad later.
  • Farewell to Jira—This occurs as Qui-Gon and Anakin are leaving Mos Espa and Anakin stops briefly to say goodbye to Jira. One of Darth Maul's probe droids follows them for some time until Qui-Gon finally notices and destroys it before passing by the Dusty Duck.
  • The Air Taxi Sequence—The taxi ride shows us about ten more seconds of Coruscant, later added on DVD.


Main article: Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (soundtrack)

Two separate soundtracks were released for The Phantom Menace. One, a traditional soundtrack, contained seventeen tracks selected from the movie. The second, an Ultimate Collector's Edition Soundtrack, compiled sixty-eight tracks of music, including several pieces that did not make it in to the final cut of the film.

Major musical themes include:


Main article: Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (novel)

A novelization of the movie was written by Terry Brooks. It includes three entire chapters of material created by Brooks and unique to the novel. The first two chapters of the book concern Anakin's next-to-last podrace and its aftermath, while a later chapter describes an encounter between Anakin and a wounded Tusken Raider in the desert.

Brooks met with Lucas before writing the book and received his approval and guidance, including information about developments to come in Episodes II and III. This can be seen in such passages as the Tusken Raider scene, which ironically foreshadows the death of Anakin's mother in Episode II, and the passage leading up to Anakin's fight with the Rodian child Greedo, indicating that Anakin's anger derives from his anguish at Padmé's impending departure (foreshadowing the plot of Episode III).

The novelization is especially well-known for a passage describing the history of the Sith, including Darth Bane. According to Terry Brooks's memoir, Sometimes the Magic Works, Lucas spent an hour on the telephone with him discussing the history of the Jedi and the Sith. Therefore, the information on this subject provided in Brooks's novelization can be presumed to derive from Lucas himself. The novelization is also the first mention of the Stark Hyperspace War.

Brooks devotes an entire chapter of Sometimes the Magic Works to the writing of the Episode I novelization, which he claims to have been an extremely happy and fulfilling experience.

References to the original trilogy

  • Both The Phantom Menace and A New Hope are the first installments of their respective trilogies, and both the episodes are the highest grossed films of each of their own trilogy.
  • In the beginning of the movie, the Republic cruiser carrying Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan approaches the Trade Federation Droid Control Ship. This reflects to the beginning of Return of the Jedi, as Darth Vader's flagship approaches the second Death Star.
  • In the beginning of the movie, Obi-Wan tells Qui-Gon, "I have a bad feeling about this." (all Star Wars films)
  • Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan's first appearance, pulling his hood back to reveal his face, is the same as Obi-Wan's first appearance in A New Hope.
  • When droid starfighters fly to the blockade, they have a TIE fighter sound, just as TIE has when it approaches Death Star I in A New Hope.
  • Qui-Gon uses his lightsaber to deflect the lasers from a speeder flown by a battle droid and destroys it in the forest scene near the start. In Return of the Jedi, Luke Skywalker does the same thing to a speeder flown by an Imperial stormtrooper in the forest scene.
  • Obi-Wan loses his blue-bladed lightsaber when it falls into a seemingly endless abyss, similar to The Empire Strikes Back when Luke's blue-bladed lightsaber, along with his severed hand, falls into an abyss. He then (initially at least) replaces it with his master's green-bladed lightsaber, just as Luke replaces his lost lightsaber with a green-bladed one of his own design.
  • In The Phantom Menace, Nute Gunray says, "Close the blast doors!" In A New Hope, an Imperial stormtrooper uses the same line while chasing Han Solo and Chewbacca.
  • In the scene where Qui-Gon's group is walking through the street of Tatooine, Luke's landspeeder is seen in the background painted green.
  • A Jedi Master uses the Jedi mind trick to help himself and his Padawan. In The Phantom Menace, Qui-Gon Jinn uses the Jedi mind trick to persuade Boss Nass to help him and his Padawan Obi-Wan Kenobi to speed through Naboo's planet core. In A New Hope, Obi-Wan Kenobi uses the Jedi mind trick to convince the Imperial stormtroopers that "These aren't the droids you're looking for" and to get past them with informal Padawan Luke Skywalker. (A New Hope)
  • Qui-Gon Jinn identifies Queen Amidala's ship as a "J-type 327 Nubian." This is the same number as the bay the Millennium Falcon lands in on the first Death Star in A New Hope, and the number of the platform the Falcon lands on at Cloud City in The Empire Strikes Back. Also Podracer Dud Bolt's pod is a Vulptereen 327.
  • Darth Maul's Sith Infiltrator resembles an Imperial TIE/ln starfighter. Also the probe droids on Tatooine resemble the interrogation droid on the first Death Star in A New Hope.
  • The final lap of the podrace between Anakin Skywalker and Sebulba mirrors Darth Vader's pursuit of Luke Skywalker in the Death Star's trench during the Battle of Yavin in A New Hope. Sebulba's podracer is X-shaped, resembling Luke's X-wing starfighter. Also, part of the podrace takes place in Beggar's Canyon, which is mentioned in A New Hope.
  • In the final lap of the podrace, Anakin's podracer goes up the ramp and comes down again. This reflects the forest speeder scene in Return of the Jedi, when Princess Leia takes her speeder up and comes down again.
  • A Jedi uses the Jedi mind trick, but the target resists the trick. In The Phantom Menace, Qui-Gon Jinn attempts to persuade Watto to accept Republic credits as a means of purchasing a new hyperdrive, but as a Toydarian, Watto resists the trick. In Return of the Jedi, Luke Skywalker attempts to persuade Jabba the Hutt to free Han Solo and Chewbacca from captivity, but as a Hutt, Jabba resists the trick. It is Jabba who calls this technique as "an old Jedi mind trick." Both characters happen to live on Tatooine, and both scenes take place on that planet as well. The former takes place in Mos Espa whereas the latter takes place in Jabba's palace.
  • Sebulba threatens to rough up Jar Jar Binks, but was prevented by Anakin's timely intervention. In A New Hope, Dr. Evazan and Ponda Baba threaten to browbeat Luke into a fight, but were prevented by Obi-Wan's lightsaber.
  • C-3PO says upon activation that the floor is "not entirely stable", a reference to his line about the asteroid in The Empire Strikes Back.
  • When Anakin assumes that Qui-Gon is a Jedi Knight, he asks "What makes you think that?" Uncle Owen asks Luke the same question in A New Hope when he assumes that R2-D2 might have been stolen some thirty-two years later.
  • The escape from Naboo mirrors the escape from Bespin:
1) The ship is first under attack (Queen Amidala's ship in The Phantom Menace and the Millennium Falcon in The Empire Strikes Back)
2) The ship's hyperdrive is not fixed, and R2-D2 quickly repairs a problem and the ship escapes.
  • Queen Amidala tells the Senate, "I was not elected to watch my people suffer and die while you discuss this invasion in a committee." This is an homage to The Empire Strikes Back, where Han Solo says "No time to discuss this in committee!" and Princess Leia shouts "I am not a committee!"
  • Governor Sio Bibble protests the invasion of Naboo, and Nute Gunray says to B1 battle droids "Take him away!" In A New Hope, Darth Vader interrogates Princess Leia Organa and says to stormtroopers "Take her away!"
  • During his Jedi testing by the Jedi Council, Anakin tells Master Yoda that he feels cold. On Dagobah, his son Luke tells Master Yoda the same thing during his Jedi training. (The Empire Strikes Back)
  • A Jedi Master is killed by a Sith Lord in front of his apprentice. Consequently, the apprentice screams "NOOO!" Qui-Gon is killed by Darth Maul in front of Obi-Wan (The Phantom Menace), and Obi-Wan is killed by Darth Vader in front of Luke (though Luke was not technically his apprentice). (A New Hope) And the apprentices both ended up defeating the Sith Lords that killed their masters. (The Phantom Menace and Return of the Jedi)
  • A Skywalker saves the day by destroying a much much larger, heavily-armed space station, against all odds. Anakin destroys the Trade Federation Droid Control Ship (The Phantom Menace), and Luke destroys the first Death Star. (A New Hope)
  • The film ends in a ceremony with the female lead giving the award. Also the celebration of the Battle of Naboo mirrors the Battle of Yavin, in both celebrations, the award receivers come to the award giver. (A New Hope)
  • A Skywalker is deemed too old to begin his Jedi training. Anakin is deemed too old by the Jedi Council (The Phantom Menace), and Luke is deemed too old by Master Yoda. (The Empire Strikes Back) The only difference is that Anakin is not an adult at the time of the film.
  • In The Phantom Menace, Yoda says, "Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering." In the The Empire Strikes Back, Obi-Wan's Force ghost says, "Don't give in to hate. That leads to the dark side." while Vader himself says to Luke "You have controlled your fear. Now release your anger. Only your hatred can destroy me." Both are indications of a character in an earlier made but later set film "remembering" a conversation had in a film which has not yet been made. (The Empire Strikes Back)
  • The Battle of Naboo reflects the Battle of Endor:
1) A primitive race, which fights for the good faction, is involved in an elaborate battle with a technologically advanced army, which fights for the evil faction. (Gungans versus battle droids in The Phantom Menace, and Ewoks versus Imperial stormtroopers in Return of the Jedi).
2) Both The Phantom Menace and Return of the Jedi feature three battles taking place simultaneously: a ground battle, a space battle, and a lightsaber duel.
3) Both the battles comes to a point where the odds are in favor of the army of evil, but the tides turn resulting in the victory for the army of good.
4) Both battles end with a Jedi funeral and a celebration sequence.
5) The escape of Anakin from the Droid Control Ship reflects the escape of Lando and Wedge from the second Death Star. In both the case the ship or station is about to be blown.
6) The power generator in the Droid Control Ship looks exactly like the one in the second Death Star and also falls like it when destroyed albeit faster due to size.
7) Near the end of each film, a Sith Lord is hurled down a deep chasm to his death. Darth Maul is cut in half and hurled down to a deep chasm on Naboo by Obi-Wan, killing him (The Phantom Menace), and Emperor Palpatine is hurled down to a deep chasm on the second Death Star by Darth Vader, also killing him. (Return of the Jedi.)
  • During Qui-Gon's funeral/cremation, Mace Windu says to Yoda, regarding the death of Darth Maul, "But which was killed, the master or the apprentice?" The camera then slowly pans around the funeral, until finally settling on Palpatine. The Senator's face is in clear focus, while everyone else is blurred. The camera remains there for a few seconds, before cutting to the celebration in Theed. This alludes to Palpatine's role as the Dark Lord of the Sith in all six films.
  • At the very end of the movie's closing credits, you can briefly hear the recognizable breathing of Darth Vader.
  • After Obi-Wan tells the Jedi Council that he is ready for the Jedi Trials, Master Yoda says "our own council we will keep on who is ready." On Dagobah, when Luke tells Master Yoda that he is ready to be trained, Master Yoda says "my own council will I keep on who is to be trained." (The Empire Strikes Back)
  • A Sith Lord serves alongside a political leader as his superior. Darth Maul serves alongside Viceroy Nute Gunray (The Phantom Menace), and Darth Vader serves alongside Grand Moff Wilhuff Tarkin (A New Hope).
  • Incidents occurs between Anakin and Padmé which are quite same as for their children:
1) Anakin meets Padmé on Tatooine whereas in A New Hope, disguised as Stormtroopers, Luke and Han meet Leia aboard the first Death Star, (in both the case, the girl is unknown to the boys and they get along well.)
2) At the end of The Phantom Menace, Padmé and Anakin smile at each other whereas at the end of A New Hope, Leia and Luke smile at each other.
3) Darth Maul searches for Padmé, whereas in The Empire Strikes Back, Darth Vader searches for Luke and Leia.
4) Padmé is captured and then rescued with the help of two Jedi Knights. In A New Hope, Leia is captured and then rescued by two Jedi Knights and Han Solo. Obi-Wan is one of the Jedi Knights involved in both of these rescue missions. The other Jedi Knight is Qui-Gon in the former and Luke in the latter.
5) Anakin and Padmé participate in the Battle of Naboo, whereas Luke and Leia participate in the Battle of Endor (Return of the Jedi). Both of these battles are quite the same.
  • After Queen Amidala's double tricks Nute Gunray into sending his guards after the double, an order is given to seal the doors. Even though modern visual effects would make the door slam down in a realistic way, it did not. This is perhaps a reflection of the scene in A New Hope when Luke Skywalker, as an Imperial stormtrooper, seals the door of the control room to confer with Han Solo aboard the first Death Star. This is evident in that both scenes show the door slamming shut in a very similar, albeit archaic, manner.
  • At the end of the film, when Palpatine lands on Naboo, he is accompanied by Republic Senate Guards dressed in navy blue. Their uniforms are predecessors to those of the crimson Emperor's Royal Guards in Return of the Jedi.
  • At the end of the film, the way Obi-Wan looks upon Anakin at the celebration is similar to the way the ghost form of Obi-Wan looks upon the ghost form of Anakin at the end of Return of the Jedi.
  • Someone touches another person's lightsaber in every episode for a reason other than taking the prisoner's weapon. In this episode, he touches Qui-Gon Jinn's after his own was knocked into the abyss. In Attack of the Clones, Anakin loses control of his lightsaber when confronting the assassin. In Revenge of the Sith, Anakin battles Dooku and manages to get Dooku's lightsaber before killing him. In A New Hope, Obi-Wan hands Anakin's old lightsaber to Luke. In The Empire Strikes Back, Han Solo uses Luke's lightsaber to cut open the frozen tauntaun to keep Luke warm. In Return of the Jedi, Darth Vader was looking at Luke's new lightsaber.
  • Both A New Hope and The Phantom Menace feature a member of the Skywalker family flying a starfighter with R2-D2 in it in his first space battle to help an organization he just joined before he becomes a Jedi, which concludes with his destroying of a round space station just before the side he's on almost loses the battle.


Trivia sections are discouraged per the Wookieepedia trivia policy.

This article could be improved by integrating relevant items and removing inappropriate ones.

  • Aurra Sing appears watching the podrace on a cliff.
  • There are no words emphasized by all-caps in the opening crawl of this movie or any odd-numbered movie.
  • Like the movies in the original trilogy, The Phantom Menace is the only movie of the prequel trilogy to be the highest grossing movie of that year, domestically and internationally both. (Episode II never reached highest grossing status in 2002, whereas Episode III was only the domestically highest grossing movie in 2005).
  • One of the more popular rumors was that Natalie Portman sprained her ankle while filming and her limp was corrected digitally in post-production. It is said in the audio commentary that she rolled out of bed and did in fact sprain her ankle.
  • In the scene where Queen Amidala calls for a vote of no confidence, a group of aliens that can be seen in the Galactic Senate resemble E.T.'s race from E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Also visible are a group of Wookiees. For the first time since The Star Wars Holiday Special, the species was played by someone other than Peter Mayhew.
  • During the podrace, Watto is accompanied by a character named Weazel. This character was portrayed by Warwick Davis, who also starred as Wicket in Return of the Jedi, as well as Willow Ulfgood in the George Lucas film Willow.
  • A nuna being flicked off a balcony by Jabba has the same scream as an astromech droid.
  • Famous characters from the original trilogy that make their first chronological appearance in this movie include C-3PO, Bib Fortuna, Jabba the Hutt, Obi-Wan Kenobi, Palpatine, R2-D2, Anakin Skywalker, and Yoda. A scene with a character eventually known as Greedo the Elder was shot but deleted from the theatrical version of the film. The scene is included among the deleted scenes on the DVD release. However, Greedo the Elder still appears the film—albeit as a background character.
  • Jar Jar Binks's catchphrase of "How rude!", is a direct lift from a C-3PO line in The Empire Strikes Back.
  • Aside from A New Hope, this is the only Star Wars film in which the final scene contains any form of dialogue or monologue. However, it is only a single word, uttered by Boss Nass: "Peace!" The A New Hope final scene only contains R2-D2's beeping and a howl from Chewbacca.
  • Liam Neeson was so eager to be in the film, he didn't bother reading the script. Neeson, however, reportedly disliked working on the film once principal photography began. Neeson later made disparaging remarks regarding working with special effects that were linked to this film, though they were actually directed at The Haunting, which was released the same year. In addition, Neeson also reported that he was quite pleased with the final cut of the film, and wouldn't mind working with Lucas again.
  • The sound of Watto's wings flapping is a looped recording of sound designer Ben Burtt opening and closing an umbrella.[20]
  • It is a common misconception that Darth Maul blinks only once, just after he is sliced in half by Obi-Wan Kenobi. In fact, he also blinks just after his lightsaber is cut in two.
  • The word lightsaber is never used. When Anakin talks to Qui-Gon, he calls it a "laser sword."
  • The film's working title was The Beginning. "Phantom Menace" was also the name of a villain in the Flash Gordon serials.
  • Jar Jar Binks has been heavily criticized by members of the Afro-Caribbean community for portraying island culture as a caricature of incompetence and clumsiness. Around the turn of the millennium, a popular insult among Haitians was to call the victim a "jar-jar."
  • Natalie Portman had to miss the film's premiere to study for her high school final exams.[20]
  • The lightsaber duel between Qui-Gon, Obi-Wan and Darth Maul took nearly a month to film. It is also the first lightsaber duel which is between two Jedi and one Sith Lord. In the duel against Palpatine vs the four Jedi Masters, all of the Jedi were killed early besides for Mace Windu. Technically, the duel in Episode II was alike, with the only exception that the Jedi did not attack their adversary together. It was not until Episode III that two Jedi—Obi-Wan and Anakin again—would fight together against a Sith Lord, and even then Obi-Wan would be knocked unconscious early on.
  • When Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan rescue Queen Amidala and company from the battle droids, Qui-Gon Force-pushes one of the droids, and the droid lets out a yell that sounds like Homer Simpson's "D'oh!"
  • Before being cast as Queen Amidala, Natalie Portman had never seen the original trilogy.
  • With the exception of Yoda, none of the Jedi Council members' names are identified in the film's dialogue.
  • When Padmé and her guards infiltrate the palace, just before they are arrested by the droidekas, check on the top of the corridor. It's hardly visible, but there is an arch with a portrait of George Lucas on it.
  • The number of guards accompanying Padmé varies throughout the sequence. Seven guards use ascension guns, but about 13 or 14 guards are in the corridor a moment later. Then, when they are surrounded by the droids, there are about 10 or 11 of them and Padmé and Captain Panaka are not there.
  • This is the only Star Wars film in which Obi-Wan is clean-shaven.
  • Taylor Wells was second-in-line in the auditions process for Anakin Skywalker; he does make an uncredited appearance in the film around the first podracing scene.
  • Keira Knightley (daughter of Will Knightley) and Sofia Coppola (daughter of Francis Ford Coppola) both have small roles in the film; this movie was the former's film debut.
  • Lucy Richardson, the girl who originally inspired the Beatles song "Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds", worked in the art department for Episode I.
  • Ahmed Best was cast as Jar Jar Binks after casting director Robin Gurland saw how loose and lanky he was during a performance of musical group STOMP.
  • British actor Benedict Taylor, who plays Fighter Pilot Bravo 2 in The Phantom Menace, is the brother of actress Femi Taylor, who plays Oola the Twi'lek dancer in Return of the Jedi.
  • The first scene filmed during principal photography was Darths Sidious and Maul on Coruscant.
  • The sounds of the spectators at the Boonta Eve Podrace are sounds of football fans recorded by Ben Burtt at a San Francisco 49ers game.
  • All of the Gungans are based on the Jar Jar Binks's CGI model.[21]
  • During pre-production, the film's codename was Star Wars: Genesis.
  • Nathan Hamill, the son of Mark Hamill, makes an uncredited cameo appearance as a podrace spectator and as a Naboo palace guard.
  • In the first shot of the planet Coruscant, immediately before Sidious and Maul are shown talking on the balcony, there are several ships flying over the planet in various directions on the screen. One of the ships is Discovery One from 2001: A Space Odyssey. It is flying from left to right and leaves the screen before the shot ends.
  • When Qui-Gon and Watto are discussing the hyperdrive engine, you can see a space pod from 2001: A Space Odyssey sitting in the junk pile in the background.
  • Jabba the Hutt is credited in the film's end credits as playing himself.
  • Prince Xizor can be seen in the stands at the podrace, as the modeling crew used some toys to populate the stands.
  • In the scene on Coruscant where the Queen and company return to her ship to depart for Naboo, a spinner from Blade Runner can be briefly seen among the other various aircraft in the background of the landing platform.
  • Justin Berfield, who played Reese on Malcolm in the Middle, auditioned for the role of Anakin Skywalker.[22]
  • The film contains the only on-screen evidence of Force speed, used by Qui-Gon Jinn and Obi-Wan Kenobi to escape the droidekas.
  • This is the only movie where Anakin Skywalker/Darth Vader does not wield a lightsaber.
  • This is the only movie without any storm/clonetroopers.
  • One of the myths surrounding the film was that ILM digitally inserted the Starship Enterprise from Star Trek in Couruscant's sky traffic. Another myth was that Kyle Katarn's first ship, the Moldy Crow, was inserted.
  • The evil robot used in a number of sci-fi films and made an appearance on Lost in Space, battling the good robot with the Robinson family, is also seen in Watto's store.
  • Part of the film's promotion involved the creation of a pog contest that involved several prominent restaurant chains.
  • In the scene where Jar Jar is attacked Sebulba in the streets of Tatooine, Quinlan Vos can be seen in the background character. This was actually not known as Vos at the time. Dark Horse Comics used the character as a template for Vos. Eventually fans established that Vos was on an undercover mission.
  • This is the only film in which a non-human Sith Lord (specifically Darth Maul), is shown on screen. All other Sith Lords appearing in the films are human, besides for Darth Plagueis, who is only mentioned in Episode III.
  • The scene near the beginning of the film with the gas escaping the vents is the only scene in the entire film that doesn't use digital special effects.
  • C-3PO's gold shell is seen in Watto's junkyard while Qui-Gon and Watto are talking. It is missing a leg, which accounts for C-3PO's silver leg.
  • The podrace sequence show close resemblance to the race in the Norwegian stop-motion animated film Flåklypa Grand Prix.
  • The podrace crashes were modelled after real life NASCAR crashes.
  • At the very end of the end credits the ominous sound of Darth Vader's famous breathing apparatus can be heard (though very softly).

Notes and references

  1. Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine, issue 17, 1992, p. 5-6
  2. Un-Menaced. IMDb (April 1 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  3. May 19th: A "Cultural Holiday?". IMDb (May 6 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  4. When Will They Start Lining Up?. IMDb (March 8 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  5. Forces Of Feet. IMDb (March 26, 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  6. The Wait Gets Shorter. IMDb (April 26, 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  7. Scalpers Cleaning Up On The Internet. IMDb (May 18, 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  8. Lucas Calls The Shots. IMDb (April 6, 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  9. Gridlock At Star Wars Site. IMDb (November 19, 1998). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  10. Star Wars Hits Hollywood. IMDb (November 23, 1998). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  11. Lucas: Fox Won't Use New Star Wars Trailer To Hype New Movie. IMDb (March 10, 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  12. Lucas Planning Unusual Star Wars Strategy In UK. IMDb (December 2, 1998). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  13. Not So Far Away. IMDb (March 11, 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  14. L.A. Premiere For Episode 1 Set. IMDb (March 25, 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  15. Kids Causes To Host Star Wars Debut. IMDb (April 15, 1999). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  16. Kevin RidolFi. The Phantom Menace. Renaissance Online Magazine. Retrieved on July 25, 2006.
  17. BBC News | FILM | Star Wars breaks DVD records
  18. Star Wars: The Phantom Menace Region 1 DVD Review
  19. You must be a member of Star Wars Hyperspace to view this linkEpisode III Set Diary - A Shifting in the Force on Hyperspace
  20. 20.0 20.1 Trivia for Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace
  21. Star Wars Databank
  22. "3000 Anakins." Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace web documentary

See also

  • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace novelization
  • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace junior novelization
  • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace comic series
  • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace video game
  • Star Wars Manga: The Phantom Menace
  • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Adventures

External links

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