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Dr Who

Up to date as of January 31, 2010
(Redirected to England article)

From TARDIS Index File, the free Doctor Who reference.

England was a geographical region of Earth in the country of United Kingdom. It was frequently visited by the Doctor, who had adopted much of its customs, dress, and other cultural elements. The capital of England was London.

'English'

The term 'English' can be used to describe the common language shared as primary language between the United Kingdom United States of America and Australia and spoken by much of the world, it being said, especially in the early 21st century for the Eurozone to know English, than teach the world other languages. (EDA: Trading Futures)

English can also be used to refer to people, products or objects from England. the Doctor told Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright that the eggs and bacon provided by the TARDIS' food machine contained 'English bacon'. (DW: An Unearthly Child)

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has a more detailed and comprehensive article on

This article uses material from the "England" article on the Dr Who wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Memory-beta

Up to date as of February 02, 2010
(Redirected to England article)

Memory Beta, the wiki for licensed Star Trek content.

England is a country that forms part of the United Kingdom on Earth.


Template image. This article is a stub. You can help our database by fixing it.

Contents

Geography

Cities

Towns

  • Ross-on-Wye

Other Locations

English People and Residents

In Universe

Real World

Earth states, organizations and geographical regions
Planetary State United Earth International organizations United NationsNew United Nations
Africa Pan-African Alliance African Confederation (Somalia) • EgyptMadagascarMaliSenegalSouth AfricaUnited States of Africa (Kenya)
Asia Eastern Coalition ChinaIndiaJapanKazakhstanKoreaMalaysiaMughal EmpirePakistanRussiaSoviet UnionSingaporeThailandTibet
Europe European AllianceEuropean HegemonyEuropean UnionMediterranean Alliance BelgiumCzechoslovakiaDenmarkFranceGerman Democratic RepublicGermanyGibraltarGreeceHungaryIcelandIrelandItalyNetherlandsNorwayPolandPortugalRoman EmpireSerbiaSoviet UnionSpainSwitzerlandTurkeyUkraineUnited Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales) • Yugoslavia
Middle East Muslim Bloc ArabiaIranIraqIsraelLebanonTurkey
North America Caribbean Alliance CanadaConfederate States of AmericaCubaJamaicaMexicoPanamaPuerto RicoTobagoTrinidadUnited States of America
Oceania and Antarctica AustraliaEaster IslandIndonesiaNew ZealandNorfolk IslandPitcairnSolomon Islands
South America BrazilChileVenezuela

Trivia

In order to "reach out" to younger viewers of Star Trek, Gene Roddenberry originally wanted the second season navigator to be from this country. Because of the success of televison's "The Monkees" (an American-ized version of The Beatles), with a British lead singer, Davy Jones. Roddenberry read an article of Russian newspaper Pravda, which criticized his series for not including an officer from the Soviet Union-the country credited by many for the Space Age. This was how Pavel Chekov was written.

External Links


This article uses material from the "England" article on the Memory-beta wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Halo

Up to date as of February 08, 2010

From Halopedia, the Halo Wiki

3.67
(3 votes)
There is more information available on this subject at English on the English-language Wikipedia.
A Citizen Alert in downtown New Mombasa, written in English

English is a West Germanic language originating in England, and the first language for most people in Australia, Canada, the Commonwealth Caribbean, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States of America (also commonly known as the Anglosphere).

In the Halo Universe

It has grown to prominence as the dominant language of the UNSC and the human species, and is the primary language of every known UNSC colony and organization, especially in the UNSC and UEG.

Several other languages are used throughout the UNSC, mostly with secondary roles in society, as English is always found in conjuncture with them. Such languages include Swahili[1] and Spanish.[2]

Covenant language translation software intercepted human COM transmissions after The Battle of Harvest, and thus the Covenant learned English quickly.[3] From 2525 to 2552, the Covenant used this knowledge mainly to broadcast florid curses at Human colonies and ships before destroying them, and never actually held conversation with Humans.

UNSC translation software has been able to decrypt a number of Covenant languages, most notably those of the Grunts, Elites, and Prophets. By the time of the Battle of Earth, this software could automatically interpret everything the other races said, and has apparently been installed in the equipment of all UNSC military personnel, as all personnel appear to have the ability to understand what members of these races are saying.[4] This is the reason that Grunts, Elites, Brutes, and Prophets heard in Halo 2 seem to be speaking English. Some of the members of the Covenant know how to speak English, mainly Elites and Grunts.

References

  1. Halo 2, level Outskirts
  2. Halo: Combat Evolved, level 343 Guilty Spark
  3. Halo: The Fall of Reach
  4. Halo 2, all levels

This article uses material from the "English" article on the Halo wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

ST Expanded

Up to date as of February 07, 2010

The Star Trek Expanded Universe Database is for fanon and related content. See Memory-Alpha.org for the canon Star Trek wiki.

English 
could refer to:
Disambiguation page: If you followed a link to English that brought you here, you might want to go back and change it to link to a more specific title. (For example: English (some other term), or choose from one of those listed above.)

This article uses material from the "English" article on the ST Expanded wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Starwars

Up to date as of February 04, 2010
(Redirected to Galactic Basic Standard article)

From Wookieepedia, the Star Wars wiki.

The Aurebesh script, the alphabet used for Basic.

Galactic Basic Standard (or Galactic Basic, Galactic Standard, Galaxy Standard or just Basic) was the most prevalent and most used language in the galaxy.

Contents

Evolution

Old Galactic Standard started as a slang or jargon of traders and spacers, based on a mix of early Human languages, Durese, and Bothese. Because of its popularity with members of those professions its popularity and acceptance spread. Old Galactic Standard was later further influenced by Dromnyr, resulting ultimately in the standard Basic.

Under the Galactic Empire, a version of the language was known as Imperial Basic. The language was adopted by the Rebel Alliance, and as such was spoken in the Alliance of Free Planets, the New Republic, the Imperial Remnant, the Galactic Alliance, and the Fel, Sith and True Empires.

Usage

Hologram advertisements, near Ziro's Palace, written in Basic.

Most sentient species that made galactic contact could and did speak Basic in addition to whatever native or regional language they might have used on a daily basis. Some beings normally did not possess the organs necessary to speak Basic, including Polis Massans, Ssi-Ruuk, P'w'ecks, Wookiees, and a number of insectoid races. Most Gamorreans could not speak Basic, though there were exceptions (such as Governor Kugg.) Whether or not a being could speak Basic, it was usually in their best interest to comprehend it, and most did.

The Towanis taught the Ewoks a mysterious and undocumented language, which didn't help them understand Leia Organa, and later, Han Solo and Luke Skywalker, who spoke Basic. The relation of that language to Basic is not known.

High Galactic was a dialect (perhaps a vocabulary of alternative words) intended for displaying reverence and honor to religious figures.

Basic used the Aurebesh script.

Known accents and dialects

Various cultures created different accents around the galaxy, each with their own unique set of pronunciations.

  • Barabel accent—as exemplified by Saba Sebatyne.
  • Cathar accent—as exemplified by Juhani.
  • Corellian accent—exemplified by Han Solo and Wedge Antilles. It was distinct enough so that a Corellian could instantly recognize another Corellian's speech.
  • Concord Dawn inflection—as exemplified by members of the Fett family. This was the most common accent among Mandalorians (perhaps due to the influence of their native language, Mando'a), with the tendency to pronounce words that had an 'e' with an 'i', e.g. word - delta, pronounced - dilta.
  • Coruscanti accent—as exemplified by Obi-Wan Kenobi, Palpatine, and Dooku. Most inhabitants of the Core Worlds, such as Mon Mothma, also spoke in this manner, whereas those from farther reaches did not, such as Padmé Amidala (Naboo), Luke Skywalker (Tatooine), and Leia Organa (Alderaan). In several instances, though, both Amidala and Organa spoke with a slight Coruscanti inflection when speaking to Nute Gunray and Wilhuff Tarkin respectively. It was suggested that this was their "court" voice to adopt an imperious air or bluff, since they lost this accent when in casual or stressed situations.
  • High Coruscanti—a more refined style of the Coruscanti accent. It was very posh and clipped and conveyed as sense of upper-class sensibility.[1]
  • Eriaduan accent—as exemplified by Grand Moff Tarkin. It might have simply been an artifact of the heavy influence of Coruscant, or "standard" language throughout the Core Worlds, and by implication, the elite of society, since people in the Colonies and Outer Rim spoke differently.
  • Gungan dialect—as exemplified by Jar Jar Binks and Roos Tarpals.
  • High Galactic—An obscure dialect linked to religious figures.
  • Kaleesh accents—as exemplified by Grievous.
  • Neimoidian accent—exemplified by Nute Gunray and Rune Haako.
  • Yoda's dialect—an unusual form of Basic utilized by Jedi Grand Master Yoda and others of his tridactyl species, including Yaddle; it was characterized by an object-subject-verb format. However, another member of this species, Vandar Tokare, did not use this dialect.
  • Chiss accent—as exemplified by Baldarek on Nar Shaddaa.
  • Towani family dialect—this they taught to the Ewoks when they crashed on Endor. However it was not enough for those creatures to understand standard Basic a year later, when they met Princess Leia, Han Solo, Luke Skywalker, C-3PO, R2-D2 and the rest of the rebels.

Of interesting note, the Wookiee Ralrracheen spoke with a speech impediment. Due to the differences in the vocal abilities of Ralrra, his dialect was perfectly understandable by non Wookiees, and it was further suggested that some Wookiees with this condition could speak Basic, at the loss of all forms of Shyriiwook.

Basic-speaking Rodians tended to suffer from speech impediments as well, most notably a lisp. Avaro Sookcool and Teeloo were two such Rodians; the syllables R, L, and S proved to be the most problematic to vocalize.[2][3][4]

Behind the scenes

Basic's relation to English

In both the films and books, Basic is, with the exception of some—still, English-based—words and phrases devised by authors, the same as English. This could mean two things: Either Galactic Basic actually is the same as the English language used today on Earth, or it is translated as English in a manner similar to Westron in J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings. Languages of the Star Wars universe like Ewokese in the animated series and the language spoken by the Towanis in Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure and Ewoks: The Battle for Endor have been translated to English in this manner.

In translations to non-English languages, Basic is assumed to be English but translated to the other language.

In E.T.: The Book of the Green Planet, a character mentions that she needs help with her "basic". However, in the context of the book, "basic" is most likely a reference to the computer programming language known by that name.

While the letters are different in Basic than English, there are multiple examples where latin alphabet letters are mentioned, such as Obi-Wan-Kenobi's quote "Do you have a plan B?",[5] Misson Vao's habitual reference to Zaalbar as "Big Z",[6] and most droid designations. Greek letters are used at times, examples including Delta Squad.

Accents

Dialects in English correspond to different in-universe accents in the movies. Ewan McGregor's and Ian McDiarmid's faint upper-class Scottish accents are, for example, Coruscanti accents in the movies. As a general rule, Imperial characters have English accents while Rebels usually have Californian accents. However, it would seem that this is perhaps a representation of social class, as stormtroopers and other low-ranking Imperials are heard to speak with American accents, and some Rebels in English accents (Mon Mothma, for instance). Other accents are also heard, such as:

Jamaican (Kit Fisto)
Irish (Emon Azzameen, an unnamed Czerka officer outside Anchorhead in Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic, Lurmen)
Scottish (Whorm Loathsom, Darth Sion)
Italian (Bannamu)
Japanese (Neimoidian)
New York/Brooklyn (the Chiss bartender Baldarek in Star Wars: Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast)
Jewish (Watto)
Australian (Owen and Beru Lars in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones, the Serrocoans, Fenn Shysa, as well as some Mandalorians in Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic II: The Sith Lords)
New Zealander/Maori (The Fett family and clone troopers)
French (certain Twi'leks, such as Aayla Secura and Orn Free Taa)
Ukrainian (General Grievous) or Russian (Juhani, and Queen Talia).
Swedish (Shmi Skywalker Lars)
South African (Pantorans, such as Riyo Chuchi)

Original etymology

Star Wars authors have coined original English-like words derived from real English elements but which don't exist in the English language; they seem useful to a space-driven civilization of the Star Wars characters, but totally useless for our daily language. Such words are 'speciesism' (equivalent to racism, but against sentient beings other than the speakers), 'gentlebeing' (equivalent to gentleman, but applicable to all species, including non-humanoid ones), 'offworlder', 'bird' (slang for spaceship, cf. how US Navy slang calls 'torpedo' as 'fish'), 'hyperspace', 'homeworld', 'spacer', 'sentientologist', 'youngling' (young + suffix -ling meaning 'person') and other technological terms like blaster, midi-chlorian, droid (from android), durasteel, astrogation etc.

However, Basic vocabulary includes some totally original, of unexplainable etymology, words also unrelated to English, like Moff, Jedi, Padawan, Darth etc. or even compounds like Twi'lek ("twin lekku"). It is possible that such words are derived from other languages.

Notes

Basic is usually written from left to right; however, it can also be written from top to bottom (as seen in Junior Jedi Knights: Lyric's World, in the Massassi inscriptions.)

Appearances

Where Basic is mentioned explicitly:

Sources

Notes and references

  1. Death Star
  2. Shadows of the Empire Planets Guide
  3. Shadows of the Empire (novel)
  4. Price of Business
  5. Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith
  6. Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic

External links


This article uses material from the "Galactic Basic Standard" article on the Starwars wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.







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