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Dr Who

Up to date as of January 31, 2010

From TARDIS Index File, the free Doctor Who reference.

An electromagnetic pulse (also known as EMP) is a discharge of electromagnetic radiation emitted by certain devices that can render the technology of certain races inert, albeit temporarily.

Uses

In Pete's World, the Preachers possessed EMP bombs that were used to destroy computers. Using one on a Cyberman had the effect of crippling it and disabling it's emotional inhibitor.

Since Bannakaffalatta was a Cyborg, he had an EMP device, which was capable of knocking out Heavenly Hosts (stops them flying, and starts falling). However, they were only stunned temporarily. Also, since they use up too much power, Bannakaffalatta had little power left and died. However, Bayldon Copper, Astrid Peth and Rickston Slade were able to obtain the EMP device that is rechargable and used it to knock out other Hosts. (DW: Voyage of the Damned)

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This article uses material from the "Electromagnetic pulse" article on the Dr Who wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Memory-beta

Up to date as of February 02, 2010

Memory Beta, the wiki for licensed Star Trek content.

An electromagnetic pulse (often shortened to EM pulse) is a natural or artificial burst of electromagnetic energy.

In late 2373, the USS Enterprise-E was continually swept by high-density EM pulses during a battle with two Cardassian Galor-class warships. The pulses caused numerous circuits to burn out and overload and caused several consoles to explode, injuring several crewman including Ensign Charles. (TNG - The Dominion War novel: Behind Enemy Lines)


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Fallout

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From The Vault

An electromagnetic pulse, commonly abbreviated to EMP, is a burst of strong electromagnetic energy. An EMP can be generated in numerous ways, from industrial accidents to specially-designed generators. However, EMPs are best known from their first documented source: nuclear weapons.

As the primary effect of an electromagnetic pulse is the desctrucion of electronic elements, there are some weapons that generate it, used primarily against various robots. These include the Pulse Grenades and the Pulse Rifle Prototype developed by the Reaver Movement. While similarly named, the YK32 Pulse Pistol and YK42B Pulse Rifle are not EMP weapons but generate an electrical pulse effective also against living targets.

Contents

Discovery and history

The EMP effect was discovered in the earliest days of nuclear testing, and was observed during the Trinity test, mankind's first nuclear detonation. However, scientists of the day were more concerned with the physical effects of the weapon and less so with the electromagnetic consequences, so the field remained largely unstudied until after the conclusion of World War II.

As scientists began to research the EMP phenomenon, they began to hypothesize that the EMP could serve as much as a weapon as the brute destructive forces of the bomb itself. While the primary effects of a nuclear weapon would continue to remain the overpressure and thermal effects, the EMP was nevertheless recognized as a useful secondary effect.

Characteristics

The term "EMP" is a catchall term for any strong burst of electromagnetic energy, regardless of the source. Generally, however, an EMP is a very brief event, lasting less than a second. However, much happens in that span of time.

An EMP is actually the combined effect of three distinct pulses, each operating over a different duration and at a different speed.

The first pulse, called the E1 pulse, is the fastest component and arrives first. This is an electrical pulse, and is capable of inducing very high voltages in conductors in a thin fraction of a second. This leads to overloads in everything from substation transformers to microchips, making the E1 pulse the most damaging element of an EMP as far as electronics are concerned. The sudden voltage spike, exacerbated by long high-power transmission lines or similar antenna-like structures, can easily cause fires in utility transformers and will burn the delicate logic switches inside solid-state electronics, rendering them useless.

The E2 pulse, second to arrive, is actually the weakest in terms of causing damage. Its characteristics in conductors are very similar to those found in a lightning strike, making common surge-suppressor technology quite effective in arresting its effects. Any electronics that survive the E1 pulse will likely survive the E2.

The third and final pulse, E3, appears only during an EMP generated by a nuclear blast; only a nuclear weapon creates an E1 pulse strong enough to cause an E3. A nuclear weapon's E1 pulse is actually strong enough to deform the Earth's magnetic field, its E1 pulse creating a "bubble." As the E1 pulse dissipates, the Earth's magnetic field "snaps back" to its proper field lines, creating a pulse of its own. This is the E3 pulse. Effectively, the E3 pulse is an "echo" of the E1. Like the E1, the E3 pulse induces severe voltage loads in conductors, quite akin to the effects of a severe solar flare. Large utility grids are particularly vulnerable to the E3 pulse as the long "high-tension" carrier lines naturally attune and undergo induction. Transformers somehow spared by the E1 pulse can very easily fall victim to the E3.

Effects

The damage wrought by an EMP, whether created through nuclear or non-nuclear means, varies with the object being bombarded. Transformers and electrical switching gear tend to suffer most from the obscenely high voltages induced in conductors. This high degree of induction is more than capable of causing transformer coil ruptures, casing bursts, fires, and other damage. Switching gear can burn or spot weld. Arc shorting is easily possible across phases in a transformer substation, causing yet more damage.

Solid-state electronics, such as microchips and integrated circuits, suffer severe damage from the inductance pulse. Microminiaturized transistors, which ordinarily operate in the range of millivolts, are suddenly exposed to energies exponentially greater than design or even tolerance levels, leading to the abrupt destruction of the logic and memory elements of the electronics.

For humans, however, an EMP is usually absolutely harmless, often even undetectable. Unless a person has an implanted device, such as a pacemaker, an EMP will usually pass by unnoticed, save perhaps for a slight tingling sensation. This is emphasized in the Pulse Grenade/mine damage to organic targets in Fallout 3. The only damage from the grenade is possibly the shrapnel.

Owing to Fallout's timeline split, the integrated circuit revolution never really took hold. The proliferation of vacuum tubes in the classic Fallout games (Fallout and Fallout 2) is explanation enough for the survival of the computer consoles and Pip-Boys. Fallout 3 is more of a departure from the original motif, emphasizing small-scale electronics and powerful computers, but conventional EMP shielding methods can explain the survival of these devices.

While the Fat Man weapon does use low-yield nuclear weapons, these "pocket nukes" would still produce enough of an EMP to disable computers or even the player's Pip-Boy 3000 given the ranges involved, but this was probably overlooked for the sake of game dynamics and playability.

Mitigation

Electronics can be shielded from the effects of an EMP, but effective shielding is difficult to achieve and can be quite costly depending upon the application.

Generally, EMP shielding takes the shape of some form of Faraday cage, a giant mesh antenna which grounds incoming signals, inside which the system to be protected lives. Mobile systems can be shielded with heavy metal cladding that is well grounded. Effectively, the only way to shield against an EMP is to ensure that the inbound energy will take an easy route to ground before striking the system to be protected.

External links

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This article uses material from the "Electromagnetic pulse" article on the Fallout wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Halo

Up to date as of February 08, 2010
(Redirected to Electromagnetic Pulse article)

From Halopedia, the Halo Wiki

0.00

Electromagnetic Pulse, or EMP is the electromagnetic radiation from an explosion (especially a nuclear explosion) or an intensely fluctuating magnetic field caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from photons scattered in the materials of the electronic or explosive device or in a surrounding medium. The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. The effects are usually not noticeable beyond the blast radius unless the device is nuclear or specifically designed to produce an electromagnetic shockwave. An alternate definition is: a broadband, high-intensity, short-duration burst of electromagnetic energy.

The worst of an electromagnetic pulse generally only lasts for a second, but any unprotected electrical equipment will be affected by the pulse.

EMP is mentioned several times in the Halo Universe:

Trivia

  • If you disable a vehicle using an EMP, it will show an animation of some sparks flying around but if you disable it again before it is drivable then the animation will stop and the vehicle will not work.
  • A vehicle disabled by an EMP will still have full functionality of its weapons if it has any. For example, if a Warthog is disabled by an EMP, the turret will still be able to turn around and shoot, making practical use of the EMP tricky.

This article uses material from the "Electromagnetic Pulse" article on the Halo wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Lostpedia

Up to date as of February 07, 2010
(Redirected to Electromagnetism article)

From Lostpedia

A fan-made chart comparing the magnetic field strengths on the Island

Electromagnetism broadly refers to the properties of electric and magnetic fields. Many of the events witnessed on the show are a result of electromagnetic phenomena inherent to the Island. Electromagnetism is one of the DHARMA Initiative's fields of study (as stated in the Swan Orientation Film).

Contents

Effects of Electromagnetism on the Island

The Island exhibits a number of unique anomalies suggestive of magnetic phenomena. The cause and exact nature of these anomalies is presently unknown. We know of at least two locations on the Island that have electromagnetic anomalies in their vicinity: The Swan and The Orchid. It appears a previous civilization on the Island was aware of at least one of these pockets. The construction of the frozen wheel suggests that they also were aware of how to tap into it.

Sayid explaining his compass' deflection from true magnetic north to Jack ("Hearts and Minds")

Navigation difficulties

There have been many instances of navigational issues that suggest the disruption of compass bearings on and around the island. Near the Swan station, Sayid informed Jack that his compass did not read a true magnetic north ("Hearts and Minds"). Desmond Hume also had difficulties navigating at sea, claiming that he sailed straight away from the Island but somehow ended returning to it. Oceanic Flight 815 also experienced difficulties in navigation, causing the plane to travel several thousand miles off course. In order to leave the Island, Ben told Michael to follow a bearing of 325 degrees("Live Together, Die Alone")

The DHARMA Initiative, and later the Others, used a sonar beacon to allow submarine navigation to the Island, suggesting that other means of navigation might be unreliable ("Enter 77"). Later, when the helicopter traveled to the island, Frank Lapidus followed a bearing of 305 degrees, as instructed by Daniel Faraday, who made sure he flew back following the same bearing ("The Economist").

After Ben turned the wheel beneath the Orchid station and the time shifts began, Daniel told Juliet that if they wanted to leave he would have to calculate a new bearing, and to do that he would need to know what time they were presently in ("The Lie").

The crash of Oceanic Flight 815, as seen in ""A Tale of Two Cities""

The crash of Oceanic Flight 815

See also: Mid-air break-up

According to the producers, the high field magnetic surge that occurred during Desmond's system failure at the Swan station caused Oceanic Flight 815 to crash. They also went so far as to state that this surge also caused the disruption or destruction of electronic systems on the plane itself. (Lost: The Answers)

It is possible for high amounts of magnetism to destroy avionics equipment, although it is unknown if extremely high amounts of electromagnetism could cause a catastrophic mid-air break-up.

That said, the strength of magnetism required to cause avionics failure depends on the plane's altitude at the time of the magnetic event, which, in the case of Ocean Flight 815's crash, is ambiguous. In "Pilot, Part 1", Jack suggests that the plane was at 40,000 ft AGL when the failure began. The horizon, visible from inside the airframe after the loss of the tail in this same episode, is clearly above the cloud ceiling; the horizon is likely above 10,000 ft AGL, but not near 40,000 ft. Yet, "A Tale of Two Cities" shows the plane breakup at a significantly lower altitude, well below the cloud ceiling, probably under 5,000 ft AGL.

At an altitude of about 40,000 ft AGL, sufficient magnetic strength to cause avionics failure might be possible through highly advanced artificial means, but it is not geologically possible. Disruption of avionics at about 5,000 ft AGL is within the realm of field strengths reachable in special laboratories - but, it is still tens of thousands of times stronger than geologic causes. The electromagnetism on the Island, however, has unique properties and, as it is implied that a large discharge could have catastrophic consequences, it clearly has immense magnitude. Using this information, we can tell that the Island has extremely powerful magnetic forces, since no magnetism known to science could tear apart a plane, even if it was flying below cloud level.

Difficulties in broadcast communication

In "Greatest Hits", Juliet stated that the Looking Glass station is responsible for blocking outgoing electric communications signals. Sayid also states that the broadcast from the radio tower is causing interference with the satellite phone.

It is difficult to imagine why this would occur. The radio tower presumably is broadcasting longwave radio signals, which are well outside the spectral bandwidth of a gigahertz-range microwave phone. Likewise, a submerged station is an exceedingly poor location for broadcasts of any type, except for ULF and similarly low frequencies, and regardless wouldn't be capable of causing inference in a usable frequency range.

Thus, the exact nature of how signals from the Island are blocked is inadequately explained. Given that the signal from the radio tower has been picked up unblocked on the Island on multiple occasions, the Island must be outside the radius of the signal blocking. But, to accomplish that sort of block, requires facilities encircling the Island at a reasonable distance from the Island. It also uncertain how so much broadcast bandwidth can be effectively blocked.

Invisibility of the Island

It has been suggested that the invisibility of the Island is caused by its incredibly strong magnetic field. Conventional physics suggests this is theoretically possible, but would require such a strong electromagnetic and gravitational field that it would wipe out all life on the planet. Also, any complete "cloak" would block contact in either direction, making the radio tower useless. Thus, the Island might be obscured through hindrances to navigation, such as a local magnetic field.

An alternate explanation is revealed when Daniel Faraday notices that "light scatters different here." This scattering is due to the "Faraday Effect," in which a magnetic field will rotate a polarized light source. The Island's strong magnetic field has this effect on the light. This could explain why the Island is "invisible" to outsiders: light scattered through the earth's atmosphere is (partially) polarized. If the light reflected by the Island is rotated by the magnetic field, then it is possible the Island is difficult to view until you are within the magnetic field's range. This would also explain why the sky turned "purple" during the discharge event (e.g. due to light scattering effects). Similarly, a strong magnetic field can rotate radio waves. This effect could explain how the Looking Glass station "jammed" radio signals off the Island.

The potential scientific explanation for the invisibility of the Island, however, does not explain how notoriously difficult it remains to be found; i.e., why it is apparently impossible to leave or return to the Island except by a specific bearing, nor does it explain how the Island "moves".

Tidal anomalies

The tidal anomalies seen in "Whatever the Case May Be", which are unusual for a near-equatorial land mass, have sometimes been attributed to magnetic effects. Magneto-hydrodynamic [1] effects could account for this; still, under normal circumstances, water is not responsive to magnetism.

Healing effects

The presumed healing properties of the Island have also been attributed to magnetic effects. Magnet therapy, magnetic therapy, or magnotherapy, as it is more commonly referred to, is "new-age" alternative medicine claiming to effectively treat certain medical disorders through exposure to magnetic fields. There is current research into, but no precedent for, miraculous cures caused by magnetism in scientific literature. [2]. Why some inhabitants of the Island would be affected (ex: Locke, Rose) and not others (ex: Ben), however, is unknown.

Connection to other energy pockets

In describing how the DHARMA Initiative originally found the Island, Eloise Hawking explained that beneath the Island is a "unique pocket of electromagnetic energy. That energy connects to similar pockets all over the world." The DHARMA Initiative built a station known as the Lamp Post on one of these sites: a pocket located underneath a church in Los Angeles, California. The purpose of the station was to identify the location of the Island - which is always moving. Isaac of Uluru also referred to certain places in the world with great energy, spots on the Earth such as Uluru in Australia. He speculated that this energy may be geological or magnetic. ("S.O.S.")  ("316")

Electromagnetism and the DHARMA Initiative

A DHARMA electromagnetic experiment, as shown in the Swan Orientation Film

As mentioned in the Swan Orientation Film, and seen various times in the 1970s timeline, electromagnetism was a subject of study by the DHARMA Initiative. The Swan station was intended to serve this purpose before the Incident.

Electromagnetism at the Swan

As Stuart Radzinsky states, the purpose of The Swan was to "manipulate electromagnetism in ways we never dreamed of."("The Incident, Parts 1 & 2"). The Swan site was one of the most accessible sectors of the Island where magnetism was found. It was the focal point for at least three cataclysmic events linked to electromagnetism: The Incident, Desmond’s system failure, and the Discharge (see below). Similarly, the station contained many subtle hints about the source and nature of the magnetism on the Island.

The Incident

Main article: The Incident (event)

The Incident occurred in July of 1977, during the Swan's construction. The DHARMA scientists, led by Stuart Radzinsky, set up a drill to bore directly into a massive pocket of electromagnetic energy. On the fourth day after Jack, Kate, Hurley, and Sayid arrived in 1977, the drill reached the pocket, releasing the energy. The result was a catastrophic event similar to a massive system failure in that everything metal was pulled toward the magnetic anomaly. Guns, tool chests, rebars, iron beams, scaffolding, oil drums, bulldozers, cranes, and industrial drills were all pulled into the shaft. Juliet, dragged into the shaft by a chain wrapped around her, then detonated a hydrogen bomb. It is not entirely known what happened after the hydrogen blast. ("The Incident, Parts 1 & 2")

Purpose of the Swan

According to the Swan Orientation video, the Swan was "originally constructed as a laboratory, where scientists could work to understand the unique electromagnetic fluctuations emanating from this sector of the Island." An unspecified incident, however, required the implementation of a certain protocol. This protocol was to be executed every 108 minutes, by entering a series of numbers in the Swan's computer (see pushing the button).

Kelvin Inman remarked in "Live Together, Die Alone" that a "charge" progressively “builds up” in or near the Swan, with an accompanying magnetic field. The procedure of "pushing the button" effectively discharges the amassed energies. Through this containment mechanism, the Swan appears to exercise some control over the electromagnetic field. In the event of a failure of the protocol, a fail-safe mechanism was installed.

Plausible mechanisms

Naturalistically speaking, magnetic fields are not "cumulative," though a field's strength can be varied by a corresponding physical change or a change in the associated electric field. Fields of the strength seen normally in the Swan are geologically impossible, but could be artificially produced (except for the high fields seen during system failures).

An unobserved theoretical particle predicted by many superstring theories, known as a magnetic monopole, could hold a "magnetic charge" greater than zero. Nearby high-energy subatomic collisions could produce these particles, which could be used to explain the periodicity of the magnetic field.

Jack's key attracted to the Swan magnetic field in "Man of Science, Man of Faith"

Field characteristics before the discharge

Normally, the magnetic field was depicted as relatively benign and apparently did not affect daily activities in most parts of the Swan. The only area where it was shown notable was in the main corridor, near the concrete barrier. However, there were no clear indications of exactly how strong the field was there during non-catastrophic operation. Desmond's comment in "Orientation" about "pain in his fillings" – ostensibly, gold, silver, tin, copper, or zinc amalgam, all nominally paramagnetic or diamagnetic – suggest that the field is still fantastically strong. Likewise, the degree of attraction shown three times (see photos and captions) is fairly strong. These observations are probably suggestive of the >1 tesla range.

Eko's cross attracted to the Swan magnetic field in "Three Minutes"

However, when attempting to excavate the concrete barrier in "Everybody Hates Hugo", Sayid notes that the titanium plane part he used had "very little magnetic attraction" to the walls. He guesses the concrete seal is six to eight feet thick.

The electromagnetic forces under the Swan are extremely powerful. They were strong enough to tear apart a 777 passenger plane during the System Failure and pull heavy industrial equipment down a narrow shaft in The Incident. No electromagnetic force on earth is known to be that immense in strength.

Charlie's belt attracted to the Swan magnetic field in "Live Together, Die Alone"

The normal level in the station is higher than that of an MRI. This would cause anyone who had a tattoo (Jack) to have the metal ripped out of their skin. This is a very painful process and obviously had no effect on him. It pulled a key from his neck but didn't affect his tattoo.

Purpose of the geodesic dome

Some have suggested that the metallic geodesic dome of the Swan computer room was a Faraday cage, which would protect the electronics inside. Conceptually, a Faraday cage would suppress the transit of electric fields through a given region of space; however, this does not extend to magnetic fields. For a Faraday cage to function properly, the metal blast doors must be shut (e.g. sealing the room) to create the shielding effect.

Alternate theory: This shape of this dome enables the dome to be held by gravity. This eliminates the need for a pillar in the middle of the room. A flat roof would require support in the middle. This forces all the weight to the sides, providing more room for the equipment. In addition, it is actually more stable and provides greater protection than a flat roof.

Equations on the hidden map seen in "Lockdown"

The blast door map notations

Main article: Blast door map equations

Several equations, likely related to electromagnetism, were written on the blast door map. Two notations potentially alluded to fields with strengths of "104 T" and "106 T," (T is the SI abbreviation for tesla), though the exact interpretation of these two writings is somewhat unclear. If these referred to magnetic field strengths, they were unimaginably strong. Interestingly, 106 tesla is easily sufficient field strength to crash an airplane through shearing forces but the effects of such a field on the Island would involve actions unseen, such as levitation and destruction of non-metallic objects (likely the death of all life on the Island).

The Pearl station printout, as seen in "Live Together, Die Alone"

Desmond’s system failure

Main article: System failure

In "Live Together, Die Alone", after Kelvin's death, a "system failure" occurred at the Swan as the button was not pushed in a timely manner. The Pearl station printout also indicated the same "system failure" and confirmed the correct date and time, which corresponded to the crash of Oceanic Flight 815. A huge surge of magnetic field strength occurred during this time connected to a considerable earth tremor across the Island. Desmond successfully entered the Numbers and pressed Execute which ended the system failure. Operations at The Swan appeared to return to normal with no visible change.

Events of the Discharge, in "Live Together, Die Alone"

The discharge

Main article: Discharge

Locke's destruction of the computer in "Live Together, Die Alone" effectively ended DHARMA's protocol and triggered a system failure after the countdown timer reached zero. When the system failure occurred, the magnetic field strength subsequently grew to enormous levels (easily >100 tesla), resulting in the Swan's gradual destruction as ferromagnetic items aligned within the field.

Desmond's activation of the Swan station’' fail-safe mechanism during this system failure caused a phenomena collectively known as "the discharge." Inside the Swan, this was seen as a white flash, similar to a nuclear double-flash. Outside, this was characterized as: loud low-frequency sound wave, earthquake, and bright pink/lavender spectral discharge in the atmosphere above the Island for several seconds. The hatch door was subsequently ejected along with a number of other items. The discharge was also detected at the tracking station in Antarctica. ("Live Together, Die Alone")

Remains of the Swan seen in "Further Instructions"
Effects of the Discharge

Locke, Eko, and Desmond, who were all inside the Swan during the discharge, were subsequently seen in "Further Instructions", largely unharmed and distributed throughout the jungle. Desmond's clothing and Eko's stick were ejected in this process. Later in the episode, the Swan's remains are seen as a deep crater, with metallic debris (or possibly rock) compacted at the bottom. Locke (and later Desmond) remark that the station apparently "imploded." Desmond further remarks that the "fail safe key must have detonated the electromagnetic anomaly" - although this brief explanation is scientifically meaningless.

In "Every Man for Himself", Tom remarked to Ben that the Other's have "been blind" and that their "comms are all down" and he couldn't "get them back up" since "the sky turned purple." Similarly, in "Not in Portland", Tom explains that "ever since the sky turned purple," some disruption precluded taking Ben off the island for medical treatment of his tumor. Sayid refers to the discharge in "Enter 77" in a similar way, and Mikhail in "Par Avion" refers to it as an "electromagnetic pulse" and confirms that it caused a disruption in the Others's communications equipment and capabilities. However, in "Through the Looking Glass", it is implied that the communications disruption may have been unrelated to the Discharge - being caused instead by jamming all communications from the Looking Glass station.

Based on Kelvin's comments, the activation of the fail-safe presumably ended the need for ongoing "containment" procedures. Additionally, this may have resulted in fundamental changes to the Island’s magnetic phenomena, although no persistent effects have been noted outside the Swan to date.

According to "Access Granted" on Lost: The Complete Third Season (DVD), the DHARMA Initiative broke into an electromagnetic anomaly on driling. The break allowed the magnetic field to leak out and the Swan was constructed over this area to serve as a sort of cork in the dam. DHARMA then formulated the Swan protocol as a means of temporarily closing the leak, but with the drawback that the field would would continue to build up and eventually break it. The fail-safe system permanently "sealed" the leak.

Plausible mechanisms

The science of the discharge is currently unknown and very difficult to explain. If the discharge is considered an instance of the magnetic field growing to enormous strengths and then shrinking to zero (or "normal") strengths, the "implosion" can be understood as the alignment of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic items with the field in that time period. The huge magnetic force required to "implode" the Swan would also compact nonmetallic matter (such as moist dirt), possibly to very high densities. The subsequent expansion of this material upon release of the field could explain the ejecta observed and the excavation of topsoil around the Swan station remains. Additionally, diamagnetic effects could be responsible for the apparent ejection of nonmetallic material. How Locke, Eko and Desmond survived is unknown.

Similarly, such a strong magnetic field can induce significant electric eddy currents in conductive materials, if the flux strength varies rapidly enough. This is often referred to as "electromagnetic pulse" or "EMP." Solid-state electronics are particularly sensitive to these effects and can be disrupted or damaged if the pulse is sufficiently energetic. Based on the observed magnitude of the discharge, it is plausible to assume that this could have occurred on many parts of the Island. Comments about the disruption of the Others's communications equipment can be understood in this manner.

Electromagnetism at the Orchid

See Also: The Orchid and Orchid Orientation Film.

The DHARMA Initiative also discovered another energy pocket on the Island there anothe station, The Orchid was later built. The DHARMA scientists, however, were using this pocket to conduct experiments in time travel. Pierre Chang noted that he was brought to the Island to research the Kerr Metric Equations, which some physicists believe could allow time travel, a property that the Island is known to have. Additionally in the Orchid Orientation Video, Dr. Chang notes that the energy pocket is "negatively charged exotic matter" which produces a Casimir Effect that allowing "unique experiments in both space and time". He also warns that the Island's electromagnetic properties are "highly volatile and unpredictable", a possible reference to The Incident. In the film's first "demonstration", the scientists attempt to shift a white rabbit 100 milliseconds in four dimensional space. ("There's No Place Like Home, Parts 2 & 3")

For reference, the energy at the Swan Station was considered about 30,000 times more powerful than that at the Orchid. ("The Variable")

Turning the frozen wheel

In turning the frozen wheel beneath the Orchid station in "There's No Place Like Home, Parts 2 & 3", a sound is heard similar to that of the Discharge. A brilliant white light is also seen, reminiscent of the purple sky seen at the end of the second season. It is unknown if and how these events may be related.

Trivia

  • The man who discovered electromagnetism was Hans Christian Ørsted. All the letters of his first name and the first letter of his last name spell Hanso.
  • Another notable man in the field of electromagnetism is James Clerk Maxwell, who is mentioned in Find 815 (see: The Maxwell Group).
  • Michael Faraday's greatest contribution to science was the unification of the electric and magnetic forces.

Unanswered questions

Unanswered questions
  1. Do not answer the questions here.
  2. Keep the questions open-ended and neutral: do not suggest an answer.
More details...
For fan theories about these unanswered questions, see: Electromagnetism/Theories
  • What is the nature of the energy pockets?
  • Are there other energy pockets elsewhere on the Island?
  • How many energy pockets are located across the world and where are they located?

This article uses material from the "Electromagnetism" article on the Lostpedia wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Starwars

Up to date as of February 04, 2010

From Wookieepedia, the Star Wars wiki.

An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) or magnetic bombard was a powerful burst of electromagnetic radiation. It was often used in weaponry designed to suppress technological systems.

They were primarily used to disable droids and electronics; however, a sufficiently powerful EMP could also kill organic life through electrocution.

Contents

Electromagnetic pulse weaponry

Electromagnetic pulse weaponry delivered a powerful EMP which overloaded most electronic systems not specifically hardened against such an attack. The effect was somewhat similar to an ion cannon blast.

Military magnapulse weapons were available in several different forms, which were first deployed by the Galactic Republic during the Clone Wars, and were refined by the Galactic Empire some time before the Battle of Yavin.

Though they were able to reduce an entire planet to a pre-technological state, even destroying enemy shields with one blast, these weapons were used only in relatively small numbers during the Galactic Civil War.

Operational history

Clone Wars usage

EMP weaponry was favored by the Grand Army of the Republic because of the inherently technological nature of their enemy. The Droid Army was particularly vulnerable to weaponry which suppressed electronics.

Portable EMP devices such as the EMP grenade and the EMP Launcher were used by clone troopers to deactivate the battle droids of the Confederacy of Independent Systems.

Air-deployed magnetic pulse bombs known as "magpulse busters" were also used during the Clone Wars. They were only able to deactivate the enemy droids for brief periods, so they were usually used in concert with starfighters to destroy large groups of droids.

Imperial developments

Merr-Sonn produced a weapon known as the DEMP gun for the Empire. These weapons were effective against droids, small vehicles, and powered armor. Sufficient exposure to DEMP pulses could harm living beings. This weapon was later refined into the DEMP 2, which was seen in use around 13 ABY.

In the form of a magnepulse weapon mounted on a starship of medium cruiser class or above, a magnetic pulse could delivered from orbit. This type of magnetic pulse device carried the risk of being reflected against the attacker, and this risk led to the development of magnapulse bombs.

The magnepulse cluster bomb was approximately the size of a starfighter and could be dropped from orbit by any ship capable of launching TIE series fighters. The early versions of the magnepulse cluster bomb were vulnerable to enemy fire, so they were redesigned to integrate shields and evasive flight computers. These devices continued to be used as late as 11 ABY, as part of the equipment included with the Modular Taskforce Cruiser's Inquisition Module.

Planetary magnapulse cannons were surface-to-space weapons, used much like planetary ion cannons.

Later refinement

After the Battle of Hoth, magnetic pulse ordnance became available in the form of a projectile weapon similar to a proton torpedo. The mag pulse warhead was able to suppress the weapon systems of a capital ship for a short period.

Around 7 ABY, Warlord Zsinj deployed empion mines, which contained both an ion projector and an electromagnetic pulse device.

The shadow droids used during Operation Shadow Hand in 10-11 ABY carried a small EMP gun.

Known magnetic pulse weapons

Personal weapons

Vehicle-deployed weapons

Emplacement weapons

Force Powers

Other electromagnetic pulse devices

An EM emitter was a countermeasure device used to confuse starship sensors by simulating the electromagnetic emissions of a ship.

A magnetic pulse beam was a device similar to a tractor beam.

Appearances

  • Star Wars: Republic Commando
  • Star Wars: Battlefront
  • Star Wars: Battlefront II
  • Star Wars Battlefront: Renegade Squadron
  • Republic Commando: Hard Contact
  • Labyrinth of Evil
  • Dark Lord: The Rise of Darth Vader
  • Empire at War
  • Star Wars: Galaxies
  • Star Wars: TIE Fighter
  • Star Wars: X-wing vs. TIE Fighter
  • Star Wars: X-wing Alliance
  • X-wing: Wraith Squadron
  • Star Wars: Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast
  • Edge of Victory II: Rebirth

Sources

External links


This article uses material from the "Electromagnetic pulse" article on the Starwars wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Transformers

Up to date as of February 05, 2010

From Teletraan I: The Transformers Wiki

An electromagnetic pulse (or EMP) is a magic event which disables or destroys some electronic/robotic devices, but leaves others conveniently operational.

Contents

Fiction

Generation One

Super Robot Lifeform Transformer manga

Megatron created an EMP cannon called the Omega Whip which he planned to use to hold the Earth hostage. The Autobots intervened and managed to destroy the Omega Whip. Full Throttle Scramble Power!

Devil's Due G.I. Joe vs. the Transformers

General Hawk used an EMP to disable Wheeljack and Bumblebee at Area 51. G.I. Joe vs. the Transformers issue 4

Live-action continuity

Transformers (2007)

Blackout wipes out the military base with EMP bursts.

Sector Seven ARG

The Real Gear Robot referred to as AX9-8946-09SU-1 proved to be resistant to an electromagnetic pulse in Sector Seven experiments.

Capture the Cube

Dewbot is not resistant to an electromagnetic pulse, but the guards are. Capture the Cube

Revenge of the Fallen (film)

Starscream disables military communications in Egypt by setting off an EMP.

Transformers Animated

Cartoon continuity

Just like Barry White, Ratchet's EMP puts you on your back.

During his days in the Great Wars, Ratchet carried a small EMP generator on his arm. He used this device on low power settings to place patients under general anesthetic, allowing him to perform painful or complex operations without causing the patient discomfort. He described its operation to Arcee, telling her it would "temporarily overload your consciousness center." At higher settings, the device is capable of immediately rendering a Transformer unconscious, even at range, and can also erase memory cores. Unfortunately, the generator was stolen by Lockdown, who used it as a weapon for many years before Ratchet was able to recover it. When Lockdown tried using it on Ratchet, Ratchet revealed that he was immune to it. The Thrill of the Hunt

In the present, on Earth, Ratchet and Bumblebee can create a directed EMP by "crossing the streams", so to speak, of their respective magnetic and electric weapons. Some combination of this EMP and the Key was seemingly responsible for granting sparks to the lifeless Dinobots. Blast from the Past

The two later used the same kind of electromagnetic pulse to successfully blast Blitzwing out of the air. Megatron Rising - Part 2

Later, Ratchet was forced to use his EMP generator on an out of control Sari, despite the fact that he didn't know how it would affect her, since the latter is part Cybertronian and part human. TransWarped

External links


This article uses material from the "Electromagnetic pulse" article on the Transformers wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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