Arabia is a peninsula in the Middle East region of Earth. The peninsula is home of the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and the home of the historical (and perhaps current) nation-states of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. (TOS comic: "All of Me")
One of the most famous people connected to this region was T.E. Lawrence, better known as "Lawrence of Arabia".
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The Arabia was part of Battlegroup 4 led by Captain Veredi of the UNSC Heracles that was sent to Harvest to find out what happened to the scout ship Argo and Harvest. The battle group consisted of his own ship, the Destroyer UNSC Heracles, and two Frigates, the UNSC Arabia and UNSC Vostok. They were sent to discover the fate of the colony on the planet Harvest, where contact had recently been lost with the local populace. The Battle Group encountered a Covenant vessel holding station in Harvest orbit and the Arabia was destroyed almost instantly by the Covenant's superior firepower . All hands were lost aboard the vessel.
Its partner ship, the Vostok, was destroyed at the same time, and the badly-damaged Heracles was forced to retreat.